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Хронологические рамки исследования



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Хронологические рамки исследования совпадают со временем существования Оренбургской ученой архивной комиссии, созданной в 1887 году и просуществовавшей до 1918 года. Во временном промежутке в 30 лет Оренбургская ученая архивная комиссия заложила основы исторического архива, библиотеки, организовала музей, успела провести масштабные научные исследования.

Методологической основой исследования являются проблемно-хронологический, сравнительный и аналитические методы исторического познания. Работа базируется на принципах объективности, историзма, научности, системности и критической оценки.

Основные положения, выносимые на защиту:

- В результате деятельности ОУАК значительный материал по истории казахского народа, начиная с XVIII века по 1918 год, был собран в архив. Хотя данная деятельность и была ориентирована на претворение Российской колониальной политики, тем не менее, оставила значительный материал о колонизуемом Казахстане, внесла определенный вклад в развитие науки.

- Документы, систематизированные в ОУАК, свидетельствуют о том, что со второй половины XVIII века наметилась активная деятельность на познание Казахстана, а результаты русских научных изысканий указывают на коренные преобразования казахского общества.

- С целью систематизации документов, накопленных в XVIII-ХIХ века в канцелярии Оренбургского генерал-губернатора была создана Оренбургская ученая архивная комиссия. При этом оригиналы многих документов, относящихся к истории Казахстана, были увезены в Москву и Санкт-Петербург.

- В работу архивной комиссии было привлечено мусульманское население Оренбуржья. Установлено, что они не допускались на основные работы. Но, несмотря на это такие деятели, как Г.Б. Балгымбаев, А.Б. Байтурсынов, будучи членами комиссии, проводили собственные исследования.

- Установлено что, И.А. Кастанье организовывал поиски богатейшего археологического наследия, проводил раскопки, опубликовывал результаты в различных изданиях, а Г.Б. Балгымбаев и А.Б. Байтурсынов доводили результаты работы комиссии до казахской общественности.

- «Труды» архивной комиссии рассылались во все научные учреждения, государственные органы, статистические комитеты, столичные высшие учебные заведения Российской империи, что позволило получить мировую известность результатам научных изысканий о казахской степи. Библиотека комиссии обменивалась материалами и с газетой «Казах».

- Комиссия содействовала организации в регионе архива, библиотеки, музея. И сегодня эти учреждения хранят многое из казахского наследия.

- Хотя главной целью архивной комиссии была систематизация архивных документов, но она проходила в созвучии с колониальной политикой. Так, в ходе работы выяснились факты уничтожения многих ценных документов.

Практическая и теоретическая значимость работы. Результаты и выводы исследования могут быть использованы в казахстанской историографии, при написании монографий и спецкурсов по данной проблеме. Вместе с тем, история деятельности комиссии, а также собранный ею богатый архивный материал, могут использоваться при разработке различных аспектов истории казахов XVIII-XX веков. Результаты исследования имеют значимость при целостном изучении общего и особенного в истории, этнографии и археологии также и других народов Центральной Азии.

Апробация работы. Основное содержание диссертации нашло отражение в одной монографии и 36 статьях в научных журналах Казахстана и России, среди которых 21 опубликованы в журналах, рекомендованных Комитетом по контролю в сфере образования и науки РК, а 6 статей в научных изданиях России. Материалы апробированы в международных и республиканских научно-практических конференциях в городах Алматы, Костанай, Атырау, Уральск и городов России Элиста, Самара, Оренбург.

Структура диссертации. Диссертация состоит из введения, пяти глав, заключения, списка использованной литературы и приложения.


SUMMARY
Akhmetova Ulzhan Tolegenkyzy
The formation and the activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission

(1887-1918)
Specialty: 07.00.02 – Native history (The History of the Republic of Kazakhstan)
The thesis is submitted to confer the academic degree the Doctor of History
The Object of the Research. The activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission which engaged in the systematization of archiving and at the same time carried out scientific researches in 1887-1918, and also the activity of particular individuals who were members of this commission.

The Subject of the Research. The detailed historical analysis of the activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission which is capable to show the history of development of Kazakhs in XVIII – the first half of XХ century.

The Actuality of the Problem. Having been founded on the initiative of tsar government in 1887 and existed till 1918 the Orenburg scientific archival commission left important heritage in the history and arouse scientific interest, as it is strictly related to Kazakhs’ history. This is proved also by the activities carried out on the state program “The Cultural heritage”.

For 30 years of its activity the Orenburg scientific archival commission published 35 works, collected articles, monographies, articles on history, archeology, folklore, literature and art of the Kazakhs covering XVIII – the first quarter of XХ century. Also archival documents about Kazakhstan collected from throughout Russia by commission members, undoubtedly, make a contribution to studying of the history of our country.

Nevertheless, the heritage of the Orenburg scientific archival commission isn’t still fully researched not only in Kazakhstan but in Russia too. Some articles and research works on different spheres of commission activity can’t fully reflect the history and the activity of this organization. Therefore this research work is devoted to learning the activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission, considering the works collected in the historical archive of Orenburg, the data about the history of Kazakhstan, finding out the contributions of individuals who took an active part in its work, researching the publications which used this archive. The consideration of the dissertation theme from these positions attaches actuality to this work.

The purposes and the tasks of the Research. The main task of the Research work is complex researching, critical rethinking, overall learning and analyzing the scientific heritage of the scientists of the Orenburg scientific archival commission which was founded in 1887 and existed till 1918 and left a considerable quantity of the archival materials concerning to the history of Kazakh nation.

According to the objectives it is supposed to solve the following tasks:

- To analyze the documents and works collected in the historical archive of the Orenburg scientific archival commission founded on the initiative of Russia with the purpose of overall learning of the materials on the history of Kazakh nation by scientific expeditions, groups of scientists and militaries, scientific organizations and etc from new positions.

- To analyze fundamental works and to determine main directions of development of archiving in Orenburg under the influence of the activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission.

- To reanalyze the list of scientists, officials and militaries who were the members of the Orenburg scientific archival commission, comparing the directions of their research work and estimating their contribution from the critical point of view as far as possible.

- To analyse from modern positions various difficulties in collecting archival materials, circumstances of tendentious choosing the materials collected in colonial office and the reasons of destruction of many important documents to please imperial Russia’s political interests.

- To enter into a scientific turn works of the representatives of the national intelligency involved in the scientific institutions, to reveal their political sights, and also to propagandize their heritage for the good of future generation.

- Paying special attention to the cooperation with other scientific institutions during 30 years’ activity of the Orenburg scientific archival commission to determine the general and especial points in history, ethnographies, archaeology and in other scientific directions of the researches carried out among the people of Kazakhstan and Central Asia by the commission.

- In the research work to show especially a role of separate scientists worked in the commission such as I.A.Kastane, etc., whose proceedings about Kazakhstan, published abroad, lit on the contribution of Kazakh people to the world history.

Chronological frames of the Research work concur with the existence of the Orenburg scientific archival commission which was founded in 1887 and had existed till 1918. During 30 years the Orenburg scientific archival commission had laid the foundation of the historical archive, the library, had established a museum, and had carried out wide-ranging scientific researches.

Methodological basics of the research are problem-chronological, comparative and analytical methods of historical knowledge. The work is based on the principles of objectivity, critical estimation and historical, scientific and systematic principles.

The basic postulates of the Thesis:

- As a result of the Orenburg scientific archival commission activity important materials on the history of Kazakh nation since XVIII century till 1918 were collected into the common archive. Although this activity was oriented to the realization of Russian colonial politics, it retained important materials about colonized Kazakhstan, made a contribution to the development of science.

- The documents systematized in the Orenburg scientific archival commission prove that from the second half of XVIII century the vigorous activity for learning Kazakhstan was outlined, and the results of Russian scientific researches show the radical restructuring of the Kazakh society.

- The Orenburg scientific archival commission was founded for the purpose of systematizing the documents which had been saved up in XVIII-ХIХ centuries in the office of the Orenburg governor general. Thus originals of many documents concerning to the history of Kazakhstan had been taken away to Moscow and St.-Petersburg.

- In the work of the archival commission the Muslim population of Orenburzhye had been involved. It is established that they weren't admitted to the basic work. But, in spite of it such figures as G.B.Balgymbaev, A.B.Bajtursynov being commission members carried out their own researches.

- It is established that I.A.Kastane organized searches of the richest archaeological heritage, did excavations, published the results in various editions, and G.B.Balgymbaev and A.B.Bajtursynov showed the results of the commission’s work to the Kazakh public.

- "The Works" of the archival commission were circulated in all scientific institutions, state structures, statistical committees, capital higher educational institutions of the Russian empire which allowed to the results of scientific researches about the Kazakh steppe to get world-famous reputation. Also the commission library exchanged materials with the newspaper "Kazakh".

- The commission helped to organize an archive, a library and a museum in the region. And today these establishments keep much of the Kazakh heritage.

- Though systematizing of archival documents was an overall objective of the archival commission, but it fulfilled in accord with a colonial policy. So, during the work the facts of destruction of many important documents were found out.

The practical and theoretical importance of the Research. The results and the conclusions of the research can be used in the Kazakhstan historiography when writing of monographies and special courses on the given problem. At the same time, the history of the commission activity, also the rich archival material collected by the comission can be used in working out of various aspects of Kazakhs’ history in the XVIII-XX centuries. The results of the research have the importance during complete studying the general and especial points in the history, ethnography and archaeology as well other people of the Central Asia.

The approbation of the Research. The basic maintenance of the dissertation has found reflection in one monography and 36 articles published in scientific magazines of Kazakhstan and Russia among which 21 were published in the magazines recommended by Committee on control in the sphere of education and science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and 6 articles were published in scientific editions of Russia. The materials have been approved in the international and republican scientifically-practical conferences in the cities of Almaty, Kostanaj, Atyrau, Uralsk and the cities of Russia Elista, Samara, Orenburg.

The Dissertation structure. The dissertation consists of the introduction, five chapters, the conclusion, the list of literature and the appendix.


Подписано в печать «27» сентября 2010 года

Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная.

Заказ № 101. Тираж 100 экз.


Отпечатано в Издательском центре

Западно-Казахстанского государственного университета



г. Уральск, ул. Сарайшик, 34





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