«Балтасап негізгі мектебі» коммуналдық мемлекеттік мекемесі



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The degree of comparison Сын есімнің шырайлары




Absolute Жай шырай

Comparative Салыстырмалы шырай

Superlative Кҥшейтпелі шырай

nice hot long

nicer hotter longer

nicest hottest longest

easy simple

easier simpler

the easiest the simplest

interesting beautiful comfortable serious

more interesting more beautiful more comfortable more serious

the most interesting the most beautiful the most comfortable the most serious

Кейбір сын есімдердің салыстырмалы және кҥшейтпелі шырайлары ережеге бағынбайды.

good bad

little many

far

better worse less

much-more

farther -further

the best the worst the lest the most the farthest the furthest

Кейбір сын есімдердің салыстырмалы және кҥшейтпелі шырайлары –er, -est жҧрнақтарымен және more, (the) most сӛзі арқылы жасала береді: clever, common, cruel, gentle, pleasant, polite, quite, simple, stupid, tired.

Сын есімдердің шырайларының жасалу жолдары



-er, -est ының алдында -y (егер оның алдында дауыссыз тҧрса) –I –ға ӛзгереді.

Lazy – lazier – the laziest

Funny – funnier- the funniest

Егер сын есім дауыссызға аяқталып, оның алдында қысқа дауысты тҧрса, онда дауыссыз қосарланады.

Sad-sadder-the saddest

Fat-fatter-the fattest

Big-bigger-the biggest

Егер сын есім –е жалғауына аяқталса, -er, -est жалғаулары жалғанғанда, бҧл жалғау тҥсіп қалады.

Nice-nicer-the nicest



Есте сақтаңыз!

Ағылшын тілінде бір сӛйлемде зат есімді сипаттайтын бірнеше сын есім келуі мҥмкін. Ол сын есімдер белгілі бір орын тәртібімен қолданылады.



She is wearing elegant black high-heeled shoes.

THE ADVERB – ҮСТЕУ


Ҥстеулер – қимылдың тҥрлі белгісін, мезгілін, мекенін, себебін, мақсатын білдіретін сӛз табы.

Ҥстеулер мағынасына қарай тӛмендегі топтарға бӛлінеді:





Мекен үстеулері – adverbs of place:

Амал-әрекеттің болу орны мен бағытын білдіреді:



here there above somewhere everywhere nowhere

Осы жерде сонда (сол жерде) жоғарыда; бір жерде; барлық жерде; еш жерде

Мезгіл үстеулері – adverbs of time

Қимылдың мезгілін білдіреді:



already just lately still

then soon today yesterday tomorrow



әлдеқашан қазір ғана соңғы, уақытта, жақында; кезге дейін сонан соң жақында бҥгін кеше ертең

Мӛлшер, күшейту үстеулері – adverbs of degree

Амал-әрекеттің мӛлшерін, кӛлемін, белгісі мен сапасын білдіреді.



enough very quite almost nearly even soon

little


hardly much

жеткілікті

ӛте, ең әбден дерлік

жуық, таяу тіпті

жақында аз

қиыншылық кӛп.


Қимыл-сын

үстеулері – adverbs of manner:

Қимылдың жҥзеге асу амалын білдіреді.



well, badly, slowly, nicely, politely, calmly

жақсы нашар баяу, жай жақсы сыпайы

ҧстамды




Жиілік үстеулері – adverbs of frequency:

always usually often sometimes seldom

ҥнемі әдетте жиі кейде сирек


Үстеулердің шырай формалары


Ҥстеудің шырай формаларының жасалуы сын есімнің шырай формаларының жасалуымен бірдей. Дара және туынды ҥстеулердің салыстырмалы шырайы –er, жҧрнағы, ал кҥшейтпелі шырайы –est жҧрнағы жалғану арқылы жасалады.

The degree of comparison Үстеулердің шырайлары



Absolute Жай шырай




Comparative Салыстырмалы шырай

Superlative Кҥшейтпелі шырай

Slowly Hardly




More slowly More hardly

The most slowly The most hardly




Ерекше жасалатын үстеулер

Well

Badly


Much

Little


Far




Better

Worse


More

Less


Farthest

The best

The worst

The most

The least

The farthest / furthest


EXERCISES

1. Fill in the blanks with the comparative or the superlative degrees of the adjectives given in brackets:



  1. Your brother is much ______ than mine.

  2. This island used to be much ______ (green) before the forest fires. 3. Slow down! You‟re ______ (fit) than me and I can‟t keep up!

4. Veronica seems _____ (happy) since she moved schools. 5. It‟s actually _____ (trendy) to wear your hair up this year.

  1. As the time for the performance got nearer, I got (nervous).

  2. Old people are often _______ (wise) than young people.

  3. Why don‟t you try and find a ______ (cheap) computer game and save some money?

  4. Matt seems to have got even ______ (lazy) that he used to be and almost never studies.

  5. If the problem gets any _____ (serious), we may need to inform the manager about it.

  6. If you work _____ (quickly), you‟ll finish sooner and then you can go home earlier. 12. Ben says he‟s feeling much ______ (well) after his illness.

  1. I have even ______ (little) free time this year than I did last year.

  2. The news was much ______ (bad) than anyone had feared.

  3. You‟ll need to be able to run _____ (far) than this if you‟re going to do the marathon.

2. Fill in the blanks with the comparative or the superlative degrees of the adjectives given in brackets:



  1. I met my (good) friend yesterday.

  2. Dorothy is (young) in her family.

  3. Henry is not (strong) than his elder brother Bob.

  4. – It isn‟t very warm today, is it? – No, it was (warm) yesterday.

  5. Your friend looked upset yesterday. I‟m glad he looks (happy) today.

  6. Where is the (near) post-office, please?

  7. February is the (short) month of the year.

  8. The Nile is one of the (long) rivers in the world.

  9. There are (few) days in February than in March.

  10. Robert is (tall) student in our group.

  11. In winter the days are (short) than in autumn.

  12. The text is (difficult) than the one you read last week. 13. I‟m getting (fat) and (fat).

14. The problem was (serious) we expected. 15. Let‟s go by train. It‟s much (cheap).

3. Fill in the blanks with one of the words in the box.

Small big smaller bigger biggest smallest


  1. The double bass is the __________ of the violin family.

  2. The cello is ________ than the double bass.

  3. The cello is ________ than the viola.

  4. The viola is not as ________ as the cello.

  5. The violin is not as ________ as the viola.

  6. The violin is the __________ of the violin family.

4. Use the adjectives (adverbs) in brackets in the suitable degrees of comparison:



  1. The text of lesson 5 is (interesting) than this one.

  2. I live far from the studio but my friend lives (far).

  3. This sculpture group is the (beautiful) in the collection.

  4. I get up early, but my grandma gets up (early).

  5. I have (much) work therefore I have (little) free time than you.

  6. Which is the (famous) Russian Picture Gallery?

  7. This book on contemporary Art is (good) than the one you gave me last time.

  8. I like summer (well) of all because it is the (warm) season.

  9. In our group Oleg draws (bad) of all.

  10. The Moscow State University building is the (high) in the city.

5. Put the constructions as …as



  1. I need you right away! Please come … - Please come as soon as possible.

  2. We can‟t go any further. This is … - This is as far as we can go. 3. I can‟t work any faster. I‟m working …

  1. An orange is sweeter than a lemon. In other words, an orange is not …

  2. A stream is usually much narrower than a river. In other words, a stream isn‟t …

  3. I had expected the test to be difficult, and it was. In other words, the test was just …

  4. It‟s important to use English every day. You should practice speaking English …

  5. You‟re only old if you feel old. You are … young …

  6. You might think it‟s to do, but it‟s not quite …

  7. It takes an hour to drive to the airport. It takes an hour to fly to Chicago. In other words, it takes ….

6. Underline the comparatives those are incorrect in the following sentences. Translate into Kazakh.



  1. Stretching a string more tightly gives a highest note.

  2. The violin is probably the most importantest of all orchestral instruments.

  3. The viols are bowed strings that are more older than the violin family.

  4. The viols do not have as bright a sound the violin family.

  5. The heavier the string, the low the note it sounds.

  6. Small violins have short strings than full-sized instruments, but they play the same notes.

  7. Andres Segovia is the more famous classical guitarist in the world.

  8. It is said that a special varnish used on a violin helps to produce the more beautiful tone.

7. Adverb or adjective?



  1. The driver of the car was _____ injured. (serious / seriously)

  2. The driver of the car had _____ injures. (serious / seriously)

  3. I think you behaved very _____ (selfish / selfishly)

  4. Rose is ____ upset about losing her job. (terrible / terribly)

  5. There was a _____ change in the weather. (sudden/suddenly)

  6. Everybody at the party was _____ dressed. (colorful /

colorfully)

  1. Linda likes wearing ______ clothes (colorful / colorfully)

  2. She fell and hurt herself quite ______. (bad / badly)

  3. He says he didn‟t do well at school because he was _____ taught. (bad / badly)

  4. Don‟t go up that ladder. It doesn‟t look _____ . (safe / safely)

  5. He looked at me_____when I interrupted him. (angry/angrily)


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