1. Ashu, F. (2014). Effectiveness of School Leadership and Management Development in Cameroon: A Guide for Educational Systems, Schools and School Leaders. Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 245 p.
2. National College for Teaching and Leadership. (2017). Professional Development for School Leaders. Retrieved 10.04.2017 from: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/professional-development-for-school-leaders.
3. Yu, X., Wu, Y., Shan, W. (2007). The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Leader-Member Exchange in Different Culture: A Meta-Analysis. Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), pp. 1–5.
РОЗДІЛ 2 ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ ПРОФЕСІЙНОГО РОЗВИТКУ ФАХІВЦІВ У СВІТОВОМУ ОСВІТНЬОМУ ПРОСТОРІ
Khmelnytskyi National University
Mastering choreography in UK higher education Practice Keywords: choreography, learning and teaching technique, criteria, future choreographers qualities.
A traditional choreography education – one that endeavours to produce dancers of excellence – requires consistent, almost daily, tuition over a considerable number of years. The process is disciplined and rigorous and demanding of both teachers and students. Learning and achievement in dance can only come about by intense study and practice in the effort to strengthen the muscular structure of the body until it is “shaped, disciplined, honoured, and in time, trusted”; until the movements “become clean, precise, eloquent, truthful”.
A new paradigm for mastering choreography in the tertiary sector is based on the rationale that the choreography curriculum for the twenty‐first century should be broad and balanced in order to form and develop a range of students’ skills, knowledge and understanding for future career in a changing and complex arts environment. UK education experience presents modern trends and achievements in mastering choreographic skills and develop the artistry both the teacher and student.
Studying British choreography curriculum it has been considered, that the program through which to achieve skills and knowledge should be masterminded by a highly qualified talented dance teacher. Dance teacher of today determines the historical path of dance in culture and lives. The teaching role is critical to the growth, sustenance and preservation of dance in society because the dance teachers shape the future of dance.
There are hundreds of so-called teachers, few of whom have distinguished themselves in the dance they profess to teach. So British scientists (Palmer, Stough, Burdenski, Gonzales, 2005) suggest different examinations to confirm teacher’s qualification (mastering knowledge and skills; confirming reputation; personal qualities;teaching ability; student success;self-development). They proposed a “two-gate identification procedure” when selecting expert teachers for a study. The first gate, screening, requires participants to have three to five years experience in their domain, with teacher knowledge commensurate with the field (indicated by relevant qualifications). The second gate, performance indicators, requires recognition from the field as to the exemplary nature of the participants. They state this should include “multiple constituencies, for example, fellow teachers, researchers, administrators, teacher educators…and should be confirmed with documented evidence of teacher impact on student performance”. If these guidelines are followed, this “increases the likelihood that descriptions of expert teachers will be more consistent, verifiable, and generalizable”, all of which are acknowledged to be problematic in qualitative methodology (Palmer, Stough, Burdenski, Gonzales, 2005; Gray, 1990, p. 50).
RAD (Royal Academy of Dance)and BBO (British Ballet Academy) have developed criteria that each choreography teacher should have, they are: to be a member of Academy; to teach ten + years, working with both pre-professional and professional students; to choreograph many dance works including new pieces, and classics, both short and full-length; to have entered students in the academy’s examinations with high results achieved or other awards; to be invited to present national or international level workshops/master classes; to train students that have gone on to gain contracts with major dance national or international companies; to be recognized within the dance milieu, and beyond it, as accomplished teachers and choreographers, and are commonly referred to as a “dance master”; to gain significant public recognition for their contribution to dance by receiving honours or awards.
Taking into account the above-mentioned criteria, UK universities have made demands for graduates of choreography departments, such as:
athleticism (successful dancers must have excellent balance, physical strength, and physical dexterity, so they can move their bodies without falling or losing their sense of rhythm);
creativity (dancers need artistic ability and creativity to express ideas through movement, to create new and interesting dance routines);
interpersonal skills (dancers and choreographers may find job opportunities by networking within their communities);
leadership skills (choreographers must be able to direct a group of dancers to perform the routines that they have created);
persistence (dancers must commit to years of intense practice, they need to be able to accept rejection after an audition and to continue to practice for future performances; choreographers must keep studying and creating new routines);
physical stamina (dancers are often physically active for long periods, so they must be able to rehearse for many hours without getting tired);
teamwork (most dance routines involve a group, so dancers must be able to work together to be successful).
Choreography and Dance at Winchester University regularly appears within the top 15 courses in the National Student Survey. Offered as a Single Honours or Combined Honours programme, the course is based in dance practice and offers students the opportunity to engage in a wide range of learning situations to develop an enhanced understanding of contemporary dance and choreography through its historic and current context. A feature of this programme is the outward facing initiatives which promote real-world learning through placements, work-based learning and performance opportunities. The course has close links with South East Dance, Dance Up, Wessex Dance Academy, The Point in Eastleigh, Theatre Royal Winchester and local dance companies, aswell as international partners which support students in making essential connections with the professional field. Visiting dance artists, choreographers, facilitators and managers regularly teach on the programme and through such networks student work is seen in Hampshire and the surrounding counties as well as further afield. The programmes are highly practical and students perform in specially commissioned works, create their own choreographic projects and study theories of movement and dance and its sociocultural dimensions. Students learn about different ways to engage with dance and performance and articulate processes and outcomes with clarity and confidence. The programmes integrate theory within the practices of dancing, dance-making and viewing. Students studying the Single Honours programme have regular technique classes in a variety of styles including Graham, Cunningham, Hawkins, Limon, Release, Improvisation and Contact (The University of Winchester, 2017).
Using British methods and technique of teaching and mastering choreography, we propose 7 tips for learning choreography more quickly and leaving less to chance: watch before do or question; learn the choreography in chunks that logically connect or tell a story (it is much easier to remember 3 sentences with a total of 21 words than a list of 21 words; mark choreography slowly when learning; set a very specific schedule of repetition; develop personal, not external cues; repeat choreography in your mind, as well as with body; train memory.
1. Gray, J. A. (1990). Dance Education in the Future: Trends and Predictions. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance,No61 (5), pp. 50–53.
2. Palmer, D. J., Stough, L. M., Burdenski, J. T. K., Gonzales, M. (2005). Identifying Teacher Expertise: an Examination of Researchers’ Decision Making. Educational Psychologist, No40(1), pp. 13–25.
3. The University of Winchester. (2017). BA (Hons) Choreography and Dance. Retrieved 17.04.2017 from : http://www.winchester.ac.uk/Studyhere/Pages/ba-hons-choreography-and-dance.aspx.
CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS WHO WORK WITH GIFTED STUDENTS: FOREIGN EXPERIENCE Keywords: professional development, teachers, gifted students
In modern conditions continuous professional development of the teachers is one of the key elements of successful education reforms. The teachers become the main change agents, because they change themselves – acquire new knowledge and skills and at the same time improve the process of education services provision. In this context especially important is professional development of the teachers, who work with gifted and talented students, because they require special attention in order to receive educational services that correspond to their needs and high abilities.
In the broad sense professional development refers to the development of the person in his/her professional role. Professional development includes formal experiences (e.g. attending workshops or professional meetings, mentoring, etc.) and informal experiences (e.g. reading professional publications, watching television documentaries related to the academic discipline, etc.) [3, 11]. In this sense professional development is broader than “career development” (growth that occurs as the teacher moves through the professional career cycle) or “staff development” (provision of the organized in-service programmes designed to foster the growth of groups of teachers). So, nowadays professional development is considered a long-term process that includes regular opportunities and experiences planned systematically to promote growth and development in the profession [3, 11].
According to T. B. Corcoran, professional development programmes should be designed and implemented taking into account the following principles:
stimulate and support site-based initiatives (schools’, districts’ and teachers’ initiatives);
be grounded in knowledge about teaching;
model constructivist teaching;
offer intellectual, social and emotional engagement with ideas, materials and colleagues;
demonstrate respect for teachers as professionals and as adult learners;
provide sufficient time and follow up;
be accessible and inclusive .
Professional development programmes for teachers who work with gifted students at schools of the developed English-speaking countries are targeted at classroom teachers, executive staff and principles and include different modes: self-study, small groups and whole staff.
One of the examples of such programmes can be a Professional Development Course which helps identify the gifted and talented students in class or school, and differentiate the curriculum to respond to their individual learning needs. The teachers will also be able to decide which of students may benefit from various forms of ability or interest grouping and which may possibly be candidates for one or more of the many forms of academic acceleration .
The course consists of six modules:
Understanding Giftedness – understanding the nature of giftedness and talent; the meaning of the terms; levels and types of giftedness; cognitive and affective characteristics of gifted and talented students; ways in which these students may differ from their classmates;
The Identification of Gifted Students – a range of practical identification procedures, with particular attention to procedures which are effective in identifying gifted students from culturally diverse and disadvantaged groups. It supposes emphasizing the use of a combination of approaches rather than a single measure such as IQ testing or teacher nomination used in isolation;
Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Students – understanding the social and emotional characteristics and needs of gifted students; ways in which gifted students may differ somewhat from their classmates in their social and emotional development; supporting gifted students and their parents; teaching strategies and class structures which foster the development of positive social attitudes and supportive peer relationships in gifted students;
Understanding Underachievement in Gifted Students – understanding the causes of underachievement in gifted students; identifying gifted underachievers and planning interventions designed to prevent and reverse cycles of underachievement;
Curriculum Differentiation for Gifted Students – teaching strategies and methods of curriculum differentiation which enhance the learning of gifted students in the regular classroom; appropriate use of different enrichment models that international research has found to be effective with gifted and talented students. Practical applications of pre-testing, curriculum compacting and individualized programming;
Developing Programs and Provisions for Gifted Students – practical strategies for the establishment and monitoring of ability, achievement or interest grouping, and the many forms of accelerated progression; particular attention is paid to the effects of various strategies on students’ academic and social development [2, 4].
Thus, continuous professional development helps teachers and other staff who work with gifted and talented be aware of innovative forms and methods of identifying and teaching this category of students which best correspond to their needs and abilities. Furthermore, positive conceptual ideas of foreign experience of professional development of teachers who work with gifted and talented students can be implemented in Ukrainian schools.
1. Corcoran T. B. Helping teachers teach well: transforming professional development / T. B. Corcoran // CPRE Policy Briefs. –1995. – № 16. – P. 69–79.
2. Module 6. Gifted and talented education : professional development package for teachers / Department of Education, Science and Training ; Gifted Education Research, Resource and Information Centre (GERRIC), The University of New South Wales (UNSW), 2004. – 57 p.
3. Villegas-Reimers E. Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature / E. Villegas-Reimers. – UNESCO: International institute for educational planning, 2003. – 197 p.
Lviv Polytechnic National University
BACHELOR’S DEGREE PROGRAM IN THE CONTEXT OF CANADIAN DEGREE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK Keywords: qualifications framework, bachelor’s degree, credential, higher education. A qualifications framework is an important recognition tool that facilitates the mobility of internationally trained individuals between countries that have different education systems and issue different qualifications.
Within the context of the Lisbon Recognition Convention, a Recommendation on the Use of Qualifications Frameworks in the Recognition of Foreign Qualifications was adopted by Member States of UNESCO in 2013. This subsidiary text promotes the:
development of qualifications frameworks in each Member State;
use of qualifications frameworks by organizations in their recognition processes .
A qualifications framework acts as a reference document to help place individual qualifications within their respective education systems. It is a tool that:
describes the main purposes and learning expectations for each qualification in a particular education system, and the relationship between the different qualifications;
provides the continuum of learning expectations along which any new qualifications can be placed in that education system;
provides a context for policies on credit transfer and qualification recognition that facilitate lifelong learning;
assists in comparing one's own standards with those in other education systems, whether for purposes of study elsewhere or the export of programs to other jurisdictions .
TheCanadian Degree Qualifications Frameworkwas adopted in 2007 by provincial and territorial ministers responsible for postsecondary education in Canada. It is part of the overarchingMinisterial Statement on Quality Assurance of Degree Education in Canada. In addition to the Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework, the statement outlines procedures and standards that provide general guidelines on assessing the quality of new degree programs and new degree-granting institutions .
The descriptions of degree categories given in the Framework are intended to capture the most salient general aspects of the three principal degree levels offered in Canada. They apply to a broad spectrum of disciplines, program lengths and program types.
The Framework is to provide an agreed description of what each degree level is intended to achieve in general learning outcomes and is intended to provide a broad vision for each degree level, leaving to each province/territory the development of more detailed qualifications frameworks for degree credentials offered in its jurisdiction. Other credentials, such as associate degrees, special categories of applied degrees, and certificates and diplomas related to both undergraduate and postgraduate study are articulated at the provincial / territorial level .
As Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework states that the credential awarded for the bachelor’s degree is designed to acquaint the student with the basic conceptual approaches and methodologies of the principal discipline or disciplines that constitute the program of study, to provide some specialized knowledge, and to nurture the capacity for independent work in the discipline or disciplines and field of practice.
All bachelor’s programs are designed to provide graduates with knowledge and skills that enable them to develop the capacity for independent intellectual work. That capacity may be demonstrated by the preparation, under supervision, of one or more essays, a terminal research paper, thesis, project, exhibition, or other research-based or performance-based exercise that demonstrates methodological competence and capacity for independent and ethical intellectual / creative work and, where relevant, the exercise of professional responsibility in a field of practice.
Some bachelor’s degree programs are intended to provide a wide exposure to several disciplines, others to provide an in-depth education in one or more disciplines (often as preparation for graduate study), and still others to provide a blend of theory and practice that equips students for entry into an occupation or profession. Despite that diversity, each bachelor’s degree program must meet a substantial and common set of competency outcomes, as outlined below, to justify use of the bachelor’s degree label. The range of bachelor’s programs includes:
• Programs designed to provide a broad education as an end in itself. They may also prepare graduates for employment in a variety of fields and / or for admission to second-entry professional programs. Examples: BHum (Humanities), General BA and General BSc degrees
• Programs designed to provide in-depth study in academic disciplines. They normally prepare students for graduate study in the discipline(s) and for employment in a variety of fields.
• Programs with an applied focus. They blend theory and practice, with content selected to ensure mastery of the field of practice rather than to deepen knowledge in the discipline/disciplines for their own sake or as preparation for further study in the discipline. Even so, they may prepare students for further study depending upon the field and length and depth of the program; graduates may or may not require preparatory studies before entering graduate programs. While professional associations or accrediting bodies may set entry-to-practice standards for such programs, those standards are not normally obligatory for the institution offering the program.
• Programs with a professional focus. They are designed to prepare graduates to meet admission requirements and to be competent practitioners in the profession. Some of them are first-entry programs, others are second-entry programs (that is, they require some prior degree-level study or even a degree). They normally require periods of practical experience (apprenticeship, internship, articling, clinical, etc.). The capacity for independent professional work is demonstrated by academic and practical exercises, under supervision, followed by admission tests to the profession. Though considered to be bachelor’s programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Examples: DDS (Dental Surgery), MD (Medicine), LLB, or JD (Juris Doctor)
In addition to providing personal and intellectual growth, bachelor’s programs, in varying degrees, may prepare students for entry into graduate study in the field, second-entry professional degree programs, or employment in one or more fields.
Owing primarily to variations in pre-university studies among the provinces and territories, classroom instruction is typically six to eight semesters or more in duration (normally 90-120 credits, or the equivalent) and may be supplemented by required professional experience (e.g., supervised practice, internships, and work terms).
Admission normally requires, at a minimum, a secondary school or CEGEP diploma and/or university preparatory courses, a minimum grade point average, and other program-specific requirements. Students lacking these credentials may be admitted on a part-time or probationary basis, with continuation subject to acceptable academic achievement. Second-entry programs normally require at least two or three years of completed degree-level studies or in some cases the prior or concurrent completion of another undergraduate degree.
[Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.enic-naric.net/the-lisbon-recognition-convention.aspx
[Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : https://www.cicic.ca/1288/More-information-on-qualifications-frameworks/index.canada
[Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : https://www.cicic.ca/1286/Pan-Canadian-qualifications-frameworks/index.canada
[Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://www.caqc.gov.ab.ca/pdfs/CDQF-FINAL.pdf
[Електронний ресурс]. – Режим доступу : http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100202100434/dcsf.gov.uk/londonbologna/uploads/documents/wgqf-report-final2.pdf