Ансамблеве письмо в камерно інструментальних творах для змішаних складів у творчості німецьких композиторів кінця ХVІІІ-ХІХ століть

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Smirnova I. V. Ensemble writing in works for mixed chamber ensembles of 
German composers of end of ХVІІІ – ХІХ centuries. – Scientific qualification 
work on the rights of manuscript. 
Dissertation for the degree of candidate in Art studies (Ph. D) in speciality 
17.00.03 – Musical Art (02 – Culture and art). – Dnipropetrovsk M. Glinka 
Academy of Music, Dniprо, 2020. – Sumy State Pedagogical University named 
after A. S Makarenko,
Sumy, 2020. 
Dissertation is aimed at research of peculiarities of ensemble writing in 
works for mixed chamber ensembles by German composers of end of ХVІІІ – ХІХ 
centuries (that is L. van Beethoven, F. Ries, L. Spohr, C. M. Weber, I. Moscheles, 
J. Brahms). In given works by mixed we mean ensembles containing both string 
and woodwind or brass instruments, either including piano or not (according to I. 
Polska and М. А. Radice). Mixed ensembles are primordial as in European music 
they date back to Medieval times and are relevant hitherto, thus creating their own 
trajectory of development, parallel to more fixed groups. This calls for attempts to 
comprehend specific genre traits of these ensembles as well as to reveal their 
typological features and to create their classification. 
In musicological discourse ensembles like these are studied from a wide 
variety of scholars’ standpoints: from the angle of “pivotal” instrument, which in 
its turn becomes a centre of a research (L. Tsaregorodtseva, E. Kupriyanenko); 
with focus of attention on quantitative parameter (O. Blahodarska); in the context 
of a research of a personality of a certain composer (O. Vaschenko, E. Zaharova, 
A. Boyarintseva) or of music for chamber ensemble of a given period or region (L. 
Raaben, O. Zavyalova, A. Lukatska) etc. The studies mentioned above contain 
noteworthy observations on genre, traits of composition and dramaturgy, specifics 
of ensemble texture and interaction of timbres. At the same time, analysis of 
existing literature clearly shows absence of precise explanation of specific genre 
traits of mixed ensembles with or without piano, and this hinders attempts to typify 
and classify them. 

In works regarding questions like these (I. Polska, L. Povzun), universal 
approaches are used, including those founded on quantitative-qualitative 
parameter. But there are several factors hampering construction of typology and 
classification: 1) unspecified number of ensemblists (that might vary from two to 
ten); 2) mixed ensembles with or without piano in most cases cannot be fixated in 
terms of their qualitative composition, as the degree of their stability ranges from 
constantly-variative to freely-variative with possible increase of numbers of 
participants. The majority of ensembles constituting this type belong to relatively-
constant, as it is pointed out by I. Polska. 
We state that in a situation of unspecified quantity genre typology of mixed 
ensembles with or without piano might be founded on a principle of combination 
of heterogeneous timbres of string, woodwind and brass instruments with piano. 
Usage of these timbres spawns remarkable diversity of timbres, degree of which 
can be relatively high. Consideration of timbre as a genre-creating component 
becomes possible due to new aesthetic comprehension of timbre in XIX century 
music, that is its understanding as indispensable constituent of artistic image, 
broadening of its semantic field and technical possibilities. 
From all the problems attached to revealing genre specifics of mixed 
ensembles we should mention a terminological one. In research literature different 
terms are used synonymically: ensembles might be called “polytimbre”, 
“multitimbre”, “of heterogenous timbre” or simply “mixed”. The first three are 
rather broad and embrace large area of different subgenres of ensemble music
therefore they don’t contribute to revealing genre specifics of mixed ensembles. 
We consider definitions “mixed ensemble” and “mixed ensemble with piano”, 
suggested by I. Polska, to be the most relevant and reflecting specifics of 
considered genre as truly as possible. 
A few problems arise in mixed chamber ensembles, one of them is the 
problem of interaction of the participants of the ensemble, especially of those 
whose instruments have striking differences in their nature, resulting in contrasting 
sonorities. This problem reveals itself on two levels: on the level of composition 

and texture, as a technology of writing for ensemble and on the level of 
craftsmanship of the performers. In order to overcome inharmony as well as 
timbre-acoustic and technical inequality of different instruments different methods 
of ensemble writing are used. They apply a set of devices of functional interaction 
for the sake of harmonic concordance of the partners. 
Having generalised research literature devoted on composer’s, orchestral and 
choir writing, to writing as a type of texture, in this dissertation we formulate a 
definition of a term “ensemble writing”. Ensemble writing is a set of compositional 

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