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and technical tools and principles of interaction in the ensemble, aimed at 
institution of a certain type of functional relations between parts for the sake of 
congruous harmonic whole according to individual artistic idea embodied in the 
work in the framework of type of expression, intrinsic of chamber ensemble style. 
Given that technological aspect of a composition cannot be regarded separately 
from unique artistic conception, in this dissertation ensemble writing is understood 
as the only possible algorithm of interaction between parts, chosen by the 
composer in order to fully disclose and embody this conception. 
The term “writing” is closely related to rather perplexing category “texture”, 
establishing a synchronised-unsynchronised interaction with it. 
Analysis of mixed chamber ensembles of German composers of end of 
ХVІІІ–ХІХ centuries shows existence of several stable principles of ensemble 
writing, that becomes a premise for distinction of its four main modes: 1) mode, in 
which functional interaction of parts is founded on complete equality of the parts; 
2) mode, in which functional interaction of parts is founded on equality of the 
parts, but with certain restrictions applied to range and independence of parts for 
the sake of harmonious sonority; 3) mode, in which one instrument from any 
timbre group acquires a role of a soloist, with other ones performing auxiliary 
function, becoming accompaniment. In this case equality of the parts is not 
achieved (with sporadic exceptions of small fragments of a composition); 4) mode, 
in which several instruments are dominant (regardless of their timbre group), while 

others have secondary, accompanying function. In this case parts having the same 
function are equal with each other. 
On the basis of analysis of mixed ensembles by L. van Beethoven (Sextet 
op. 81b, Trio op. 11, Septet op. 20, Trio op. 38) several observations are made: a) 
in large ensembles composer applies solutions stemming from divertissement to 
compositional and dramaturgic structure of the cycle; b) in ensemble writing of 
large ensembles a significant influence of orchestral writing is present; c) in Sextet 
op. 81b and Septet op. 20 two variants of ensemble writing with several soloists 
are embodied; d) in small ensembles a mode with complete equality of the parts is 
applied, characterised by intrinsic work on details of texture, more significant role 
of the dialogues as well as by plentiful exchanges of textural and ensemble 
functions between parts. 
It is revealed that in Sextet op.35 and in Septet op. 88 by I. Moscheles two 
modes of ensemble writing are embodied, in spite of the fact that both ensembles 
include piano. In Sextet it is a mode with several instruments regarded as soloists 
with variable degree of independence (piano is the most autonomous participant of 
the ensemble from the standpoint of functional organisation; flute and violin are 
quite close to it), in Septet mode with one soloist (piano) is used, that allows to 
reveal influence of the concerto genre. 
It is stated that F. Ries deftly uses different modes in his chamber 
ensembles: a) mode marked by equality of parts is applied both to large and small 
ensembles (Septet, op. 25, Trio op. 28 no2), achieved by usage of dialogues 
between different timbres as well as by parity in distribution of the thematic 
material and interpretation of the instruments as soloists within the limits of their 
orchestral range; b) Sextet op. 142 is a remarkable example of a work with 
intermediate state between mode with equal participants and mode with several 
soloists (harp and piano by their timbre are paired as doppelgangers, that act as 
soloists, however, without diminishment of functional significance another 
ensemblists) c) Octet op. 128 represents a mode, founded on idea of a piano being 
on the top of hierarchy with other instruments being subordinate to it. 

It is noted, that C. M. Weber uses strikingly different modes of ensemble 
writing in Quintet op. 34 and in Trio op. 63. In the former one clarinet becomes the 
main instrument, while the string quartet is understood as a miniature orchestra 
supporting the soloist. However, in certain passages some instruments rise up to 
become equal companions to soloists, and certain degree of equality is achieved in 
the 3rd movement. Conversely, in the Trio the idea of equality of the soloists is 
materialised, with a single exception of 2nd movement, marked by dominant role 
of flute. 
Analysis of mixed chamber ensembles by L. Spohr allowed to draw several 
conclusions: a) ensemble writing of Nonet op. 31 is an example of incarnating the 
principle of complete equality of parts in spite of large number of participants. By 
the same token, large ensemble places restrictions on the range of parts, on the 
exchange of tessiture positions as well as on revealing virtuoso potential of each 
instrument; b) in Octet op. 32 composer applies mode of ensemble writing 
incorporating two principles: of equality between the instruments and of 
dominance of “the best among equal” (clarinet, French horn and violin); c) in 
Septet op. 147 principle of equality of the parts is used, however, ensemble writing 
is not so rich with solo phrases, more doublings are used, a device of integrating 
the instruments in timbre combinations or groups and their juxtaposition is used 
more extensively.
It is revealed that in three mixed ensembles by J. Brahms (Trio op. 40, Trio 
op. 114, Quintet op. 115) different modes of ensemble writing with equal parts are 
used. Such variety is caused by dissimilar qualitative and quantitative composition 
of the ensemble as well as by individual artistic idea in each of these works. 
Thus, approach to mixed chamber ensembles with or without piano from the 
standpoint of ensemble writing, presented in this dissertation, is adequate and 
reliable for creating their classification into several separate modes. Principle of 
combination of heterogenous timbres being chosen as genre-constructing factor 
contributes to revealing of their genre peculiarity and to creation of their typology. 


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