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  1. С.Барлыбаева. «Развитие информационного общества в мире и Казахстане». //Алматы, «Қазақ университеті»-2006;

  2. С.Барлыбаева. «Казахстан: информационно-коммуникационная инфраструктура». // //Алматы, «Қазақ университеті»-2015.



Tlepbergenova A.A.,
candidate philology, Department of UNESCO,

International Jornalism and Media in Society



Features of the transformation of journalism

in modern society
Significant changes in the political, economic, social reality led to significant shifts in the public consciousness and, accordingly, in speech practice. It is natural that such complex processes could not be limited to narrow chronological frames. History, with all its social and political upheavals and new ideas, gives modern philologists an opportunity to observe a rare and very interesting situation of active language transformation in development.

Today, judging the changes that have occurred in the language, you can mainly on the example of journalism. If there is a society, then there must be of journalism. The formation of modern journalism has been slow, in the tense struggle of opposing tendencies, and there is no reason to believe that the post-Soviet evolution of journalism has completely ended.

It is known that journalism is a means of ideological influence. Now we focus on the Western model, which declares the desire for objectivity, the journalism of fact comes to the fore. A deeper meaning of this phenomenon is also possible: namely, in changing the attitude towards man in modern civilization and culture in the postmodern era. In fact, journalism is alienated from a person, since the person in the postmodern world is not perceived as a person, he becomes only a combination of signs or something else, journalism is the same as the most personal journalism is moving to the background.

In this regard, it seems to us necessary to study the stylistic features of the modern language of the media, namely, the language of journalism.

Journalism, which is called the chronicle of modern times, since it fully reflects the current history, is addressed to the topical problems of society - political, social, everyday, philosophical, etc., close to fiction. Just like fiction, journalism is thematically inexhaustible, its genre range is enormous, and its expressive resources are enormous. All these features determined the peculiarity of the figurative system of the journalistic style.

To see the thematic breadth of journalism, it is enough to open any number of a newspaper and view its headings. You will receive an original summary, an instant photo of the content of the newspaper. Journalism is a kind of political activity, including, this direct and direct invasion of the field of political practice. This is the area of ​​functioning of politics. Here the reflection of any fact, of any situation, bears upon itself the seal of the views, beliefs, idea of the writer. Journalism also serves as an ideological means of mobilizing public activity. The newspaper can write about politics, about diplomacy, about sport, about art, social movements, economics, construction, etc. The themes of newspaper publications are difficult to exhaust, they are so diverse. So, the journalistic style, and with it the newspaper speech (newspaper bedding), turns out to be a very complex phenomenon due to the heterogeneity of its tasks and terms of communication.

One of the important functions of journalism (in particular its newspaper and magazine variety) is the information function. The phenomenon of journalism is inextricably linked with the phenomenon of ideology. Powerful journalism has always existed in a powerful ideology. So it was in the countries of the post-Soviet space and in the XX century, and during the so-called "perestroika". The desire to report in the shortest possible time about the latest news could not but find reflection both in the nature of communicative tasks and in their verbal embodiment. However, this historically original function of the newspaper / 1 / was gradually pushed aside by another - propaganda function. "Pure" information remained only in some genres, and even there, due to the selection of the facts themselves and the nature of their submission, it turned out to be subordinate to the main, namely agitation and propaganda function. Because of this, journalism, especially newspaper, was characterized by a clearly and directly expressed function of influence, or expressive. These two main functions, like the linguistic and linguistic features that realize them, are still not divided in newspaper speech today.

Further, the arsenal of the journalist includes receptions of poetic stylistics: epithets, metaphors, comparisons, pathos, satire and humor. Journalism is inherent in figurative thinking, incendiary emotional force. That is, it is finite, and the genre of literature. In general, journalism and journalism are correlated as a kind of literature and a way of its existence.

Journalism is rich in expressive resources. Like fiction, it has a significant impact force, uses a wide variety of trails, rhetorical figures, diverse lexical and grammatical means.

Another basic style of journalistic speech is the existence of a standard. It should be borne in mind that the newspaper (in part, and other types of journalism) is characterized by a significant uniqueness of the terms of language creativity: it is created as soon as possible, sometimes not giving the opportunity to perfect the processing of linguistic material. At the same time, it is created not by one person, but by a multitude of correspondents, who prepare their materials often in isolation from one another. The style of journalistic, primarily newspaper, speech is strongly influenced by the mass character of communication. The newspaper is one of the most typical media and propaganda. Here the addressee and the author turn out to be massive.

The departure of the personal principle is now visible not only in journalism, but also in other spheres of social activity, the personality is increasingly erased, dissolved, becomes a combination of signs; A kind of creative medium of information that travels through a network (the same Internet) and is no longer associated with a specific person. Avoiding journalism in journalism is also some expression of this tendency: rejection of a person who feels inspired, needs to be inspired, and also from a personal journalist. The present structure of mass consciousness is pragmatically functional. Journalism of modern times - journalism is a statement of fact. It is the most functional, it states. All this is due to the fact that a large stratification of society occurred (in the spheres of activity, in political views, in financial interests, in social status and many others).

The entire dictionary of the literary language serves as the material for creating an appraisal of newspaper and journalistic vocabulary, although some of its ranks are especially productive in journalism.

The active function of the newspaper- journalistic style is particularly evident in the syntax. From a diverse syntactic repertoire, journalism selects designs that have a significant impact potential. It is expressiveness that attracts journalism in the construction of colloquial speech. They, as a rule, are compressed, capacious. Another important quality is mass, democracy, accessibility. Against the backdrop of the book as a whole, the syntax of journalism is distinguished by its stylistic novelty. The newspaper- journalistic style is characterized by its own system of genres. Each genre is a certain way of organizing speech, a certain speech form, in which the image of the author plays the main role. So, in fiction, the law becomes precisely the discrepancy between the real personality of the writer and the person on whose behalf the story is conducted. The writer, as it were, specially designed the image of the author, who organizes quite often a complex polyphonic narrative.

The newspaper-journalistic style is characterized by a principled coincidence of the author and the narrator. This coincidence is the main difference between the journalistic speech - its "openness", documentary, emotionality. The publicist directly and directly refers to the reader with his thoughts, feelings. And this is the strength and expressiveness of journalism. Although in journalism the journalist - the creator of the work - and his author's "I" completely coincide, the author's image as a composition-speech category is preserved, but filled with different content. The image of the author in journalism is the author's "I" of a journalist, the nature of his attitude to reality (direct description, analysis, assessment, communication, etc.). Applied to each genre, this author's "I", the image of the author, has a different form, character. For example, in a lead-article journalist acts as a representative of society, organization, union, etc. Here a kind of collective image of the author is created. More individualized, specific is the author's image in the essay; Very specific image of the author in the feuilleton.

The genre repertoire of contemporary journalism is also diverse, not inferior to fiction. Here, and the report, and notes, and chronicle information, and interviews, and an editorial, and a report, and an essay, and a feuilleton, and a review, and other genres.

Actually, the newspaper and a specific journalist do not speak on behalf of one person or a narrow group of people, but, as a rule, express the position of millions of like-minded people. In this regard, one of the characteristic stylistic features of journalistic, especially newspaper, speech is a kind of collectivity, which is expressed in the features of the meanings and functioning of linguistic units.


References:
1. Kozhina M.N. Stylistics of the Russian language. - Moscow: Education, 1983.
2. Konkov V.I. Speech structure of the newspaper text. M., 1997. P. 11-12.
3. Maidanova L.M. Stylistic features of newspaper genres. Sverdlovsk, 1987.
4. Rosenthal D.E. Stylistics of newspaper genres.- Moscow State University, 1981.
5. Russian language and culture of speech. Ed. V. Chernyak. - Moscow: Higher School,2002;127s.
6. Solganik G. Y. Stylistics of the Russian language. - M .: Drofa, 1996; 348 s.
7. Shaposhnikov V.N. Russian speech of the 1990s. Modern Russia in language mapping.-M.,1998.-P.209
8. Language and style of the media and propaganda. - Moscow, 1980.


Negizbaeva M.O.

Candidate phylology, associate professor of Chair UNESCO,

International Journalism and Media in Society, KazNU Al-Farabi

Baigozhina D.O.

Senior Lecturer, Chair of UNESCO, International Journalism and

Media in Society, KazNU Al-Farabi

Saduakasov A.A

Senior Lecturer, Chair of UNESCO, International Journalism and

Media in Society, KazNU Al-Farabi

STATE YOUTH PROGRAMS IN CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Education for sustainable development meets the needs of the present. That is, explain why the understanding of sustainable development is significant, see the essence of the problem. To promote the formation of a comprehensively educated socially active person. This training is socially, economically and environmentally required for the sustainable development of society. In short, these are innovative programs in the direction of social, environmental, economic knowledge and prospects, the formation of skills and values ​​required in the framework of sustainable development.

At the present stage, it is necessary to study and generalize Kazakhstan's rich experience in implementing a successful, planned and creative movement forward. Kazakhstan, as the whole world community is in a highly active stage of transformation, which makes it necessary to scientifically understand the problems of socio-cultural identification of the individual in conditions of social change. In the program article of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev "Social modernization of Kazakhstan: Twenty steps to the Society of Universal Labor" the question is posed: Are there any risks to the modernization process? Yes, and a major barrier to social modernization is the widespread phenomenon of social infantilism. It is clear that successful social modernization in Kazakhstan will be carried out in the event of overcoming social infantilism, achieving a state in which every Kazakhstani should realize his place and role in society.

Kazakhstan has gone through a complex path of socio-political, spiritual development, economic crisis, the likelihood of interethnic clashes, the people gained independence and has its own unique model of inter-ethnic unity. Following the most acceptable forms and methods of governance, Kazakhstan today has a strong statehood, a strong leader and a single nation [1].

Studentism, representing a large socio-demographic group of the population structure of our country and being the main agent of social change, has a significant innovative potential that can be effectively used for the benefit of the whole society. Sociocultural identity is an important condition for realizing the social potential of youth and the basis for preserving the integrity of the state in the context of globalization. Identity is a complex phenomenon in which the axiological (value) content of the national, cultural, religious, multilingual, civilian components is the basic and determining component.

Under the conditions of globalization, young people, in particular students, are carriers of new values, behaviors and cultural patterns, which are subsequently internalized by subsequent generations. This makes it possible to view young people as a powerful potential for the development of society.

Youth is one of the most organized, socially-active segments of the population; it is objectively the generator of new ideas, the life force and energy of society. Youth is not just the future of the country, it is its present. Owners of new ideas and vitality are often students. The term "student" refers to students themselves as a socio-demographic group, characterized by a certain number, sex-age structure, territorial distribution, etc.; A certain social status, role and status, a special phase, the stage of socialization (student years), which is a significant part of young people and which is characterized by certain social and psychological characteristics.

Students do not occupy an independent place in the production system, student status is obviously temporary, and the social status of students and their specific problems are determined by the nature of the social system and are specified depending on the level of socioeconomic and cultural development of the country, including the national characteristics of the higher education system [2]. The generality of goals in obtaining higher education, the unified nature of work - study, way of life, active participation in public affairs of the university contributes to the development of solidarity among the students. This is manifested in the diversity of forms of collectivist activity of students. Studying the value orientations of students, we can not fail to consider the environment in which it is socialized. This is necessary not so much to understand which institutions have a significant impact on the value orientations of the students, but how many ideas, values ​​and ideals are instilled in these institutions by young people and whether they are instilled at all, what guidelines they are offered and how they do. Students represent a certain part of the youth, which has both features common to all young people, and specific features [3].

In order to complete the education in the university and, thus, realize its dream of higher education, most students realize that the university is one of the means of social promotion of young people, and this serves as an objective prerequisite forming the psychology of social progress. The generality of goals in obtaining higher education, the unified nature of work - study, way of life, active participation in public affairs of the university contributes to the development of solidarity among the students. This manifests itself in the diversity of forms of collectivist activity of students [4].

State youth policy is one of the priorities in the activities of many countries. The main normative legal document regulating the sphere of relations between the state and youth in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the Law "On State Youth Policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan" No. 581 of July 7, 2004, which defines its goals, objectives, directions, as well as mechanisms for state support of youth, Its social and political rights.

Among the most important issues of Kazakhstan's development in the period of Independence, a special place belongs to the youth direction. This underlines the youth of the Kazakh state, and the importance of the younger generation in his life. Over six million Kazakhstanis were born in the years of Independence. Putting ahead of the people of the republic large-scale tasks in the Message "Strategy" Kazakhstan-2050 ": a new political course of the state", the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - The leader of the nation, N.A. Nazarbayev rightly singled out young people as the engine of the new course [5].

In the academic environment, the notion of youth as a single and integral community prevails. Such a presentation not only deceives the public, but also creates difficulties in the formation of state policy on the problems of youth, education, etc. In the modern world, people simultaneously unite, integrate, and at the same time seek to separate, separate. All this is projected and for young people, which formally represent a single whole, differs in its goals, values and other characteristics.

Kazakhstan society is experiencing an identity crisis, which is becoming one of the factors of increasing social and ethnic tensions in society. The crisis of identity is due, first of all, to the one-sided Soviet system of values ​​that is disappearing in the past, by devaluating them in the eyes of the younger generation and causing a mass phenomenon of "identity search". The most significant consequence is also the process of restructuring of identities. Globalization helps erode the sacred values ​​that underlie ethnocultural identities, creating a homogenous pragmatized and rationalized context devoid of sacred dimension, which provokes the actualization of protest movements in defense of ethnocultural identity. At the same time, thanks to globalization, structural complexity and content enrichment of identities and their hybridization occur, resulting in identity becoming multilayered, uniting ethnocultural and global levels in a single structure.

The social context of modern modernization has a significant influence on the identity crisis: the reforms of political and economic structures, the complication of the stratification system of society, the growth of information flows, as well as a serious update of the value scale and models of social, economic, political behavior [6].

These, in fact, global factors cause the instability of identity, an amorphous socio-cultural environment in which Kazakhstani youth are forced to adapt and adapt. The loss of spiritual values, the inability to identify oneself in the national and state plan gives rise to feelings of inferiority, a sense of insecurity, provokes aggression towards representatives of other ethnic groups and cultures, which becomes a way of self-defense, a destructive mechanism of social consolidation.

For the time being, in the given conditions, the sociocultural identity of the individual acquires a predominantly adaptive character, when the individual experiences difficulty in choosing identification marks, which manifests itself not only in "identity search" but also in the structuring of the identification hierarchy and the search for a mechanism for the formation of social identity.

State youth policy is one of the priorities in the activities of many countries. The main normative legal document regulating the sphere of relations between the state and youth in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the Law "On State Youth Policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan" No. 581 of July 7, 2004, which defines its goals, objectives, directions, as well as mechanisms for state support of youth , Its social and political rights.

Among the most important issues of Kazakhstan's development in the period of Independence, a special place belongs to the youth direction. This underlines the youth of the Kazakh state, and the importance of the younger generation in his life. Over six million Kazakhstanis were born in the years of Independence. Putting ahead of the people of the republic large-scale tasks in the Message "Strategy" Kazakhstan-2050 ": the new political course of the state", the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - The leader of the nation, N.A. Nazarbayev rightly singled out young people as the engine of the new course [7].

State youth policy is carried out, first of all, by state institutions. Therefore, this policy, its pace and effectiveness depends on the capabilities of the state. But, on the other hand, without youth, there will be no development of the state itself, which determines the outrunning nature of the policy towards young people, its leading position among other areas of state activity.

The Committee of Youth Organizations coordinates all student organizations of the University. The main activity of the KMO is aimed at increasing the civic activity of students, strengthening the activity of the University's general structure of student government at the faculties, creating a strong effective team of like-minded people, and strengthening the interaction of the Administration with students. The priority area of ​​the KMO's activities is improving the effectiveness of ideological work with students, organizing information and analytical work of student government. The main task is, first, to become a condition for the realization of creative activity in educational, cognitive, scientific, professional and cultural relations. Secondly, to become a real form of student democracy with the corresponding rights, opportunities and responsibilities. In the third, to become a means of social and legal self-defense of students.

In Kazakhstan, during the period of independence, a sufficient number of youth movements and organizations were formed. Among them: Zhas Otan, Association of Young Leaders, Youth Parliament of Kazakhstan, Youth Media Union of Kazakhstan, Kaisar, Kahar, Union of Patriotic Youth of Kazakhstan, Abyroi, etc. Some Of them have stood the test of time, others have disintegrated.

In the same programmatic address of the President of Kazakhstan, the declaration of the Law "On State Youth Policy", adopted in 2004, is noted. "We can not leave the situation with the youth in the dark," emphasizes Nazarbayev NA. In the education system as a whole, about a third of the population of Kazakhstan is involved [8]. And the most important thing here is that our children are growing, forming and growing up in the education system. Some young people easily become "prey" to religious sects, extremists, drug addicts and criminal groups. The main reason for all this is social infantilism, inability to become an adult and a mature citizen, who himself is responsible for his life and the welfare of his family. It is necessary to modernize the law on state youth policy.

It is important for Kazakhstani students not to forget about their cultural, religious, ethnic and linguistic identity. It is necessary to preserve national roots and modernize our national state, maintaining a balance between the principles of globalization and the fundamentals of the sociocultural identity of Kazakhstan's youth. On the other hand, the creation of a single educational space (within the framework of the signing of the Bologna Convention) implies the transformation of the identification grounds of students in the direction of unification. These new factors may have a different effect on the cultural identity of students in megacities and cities of the scale of regional centers. The identification of these differences is very actual not only in the theoretical, but also in the practical sense and requires a special detailed sociological analysis. The success of the development of our state depends to a large extent on whether its own young citizens recognize whether they consider themselves to be citizens of this country, whether they feel connected with it, feel responsibility for what is happening, whether they are proud of its successes, the successor of which it is.


List of sources used:

1. Negizbaeva M.O. Dudinova E.I. Tasks and principles of realization of information support of the phenomenon "Kazakhstan way" // Mat. Sat. III Republic. Start-practical. Conf. "Fateful decisions of the First President of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev on the formation of a new Kazakhstan". Karaganda. Izd .: Kar.Tehnich University. P. 391-394

2. V.T. Lisovsky, V.A. Yadov. Youth and modernity. - Moscow: Moscow State University. 1978

3. Ikonnikova SN Sociology of youth. - L .: Knowledge, 1985.

4. http://www.bestreferat.ru/referat-56682.html

5. The Kazakh truth, December 15, 2015.

6. Identity: Reader / Comp. L.B. Schneider. Moscow: Publishing house of the Moscow Psychological and Social Institute; Voronezh: Publishing house of the NGO "MO-DEK", 2008. - 272 p.

7. Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan - the Leader of the Nation Nazarbayev to the People of Kazakhstan Strategy "Kazakhstan-2050" is a new political course of the held state: [Electron. resource]. - 2015. - URL: http://www.akorda.kz. (December 14, 2012.)

8. The concept of state youth policy until 2020: [Electron. resource]. – 2015. - URL.: stat.gov.kz/getImg?id=WC16200033689


Аргынбаева М.Х.,

к.филол.н., доцент кафедры ЮНЕСКО,

международной журналистики и медиа в обществе

КазНУ имени аль-Фараби

Абдраш А.

КазНУ имени аль-Фараби
Из истории возникновения

Шанхайской организации сотрудничества
90-е годы ХХ столетия характеризуются изменением мирового пoлитического и экoнoмического ландшафта, который в первую очередь связан с распадом СССР, советской империи, занимавшей одну шестую часть суши, диктовавшей условия пoлитической и экoнoмической жизни целому ряду восточноевропейских, ближневосточных, африканских и латиноамериканских стран. На карте мира появились независимые государства, в том числе и Республика Казaxcтан (16 декабря 1991 года).

Появление новых государств требовало прежде всего решения вопросов, связанных с пограничными территориями, вопросов легитимизации новых межгосударственных границ. Также необходимо было налаживать межгосударственные отношения, помимо постановки стратегических целей и модернизации внутри стран.

К тому моменту одна из крупнейших после СССР социалистических стран – Китайская Народная Республика – уже развернулась в сторону реформ китайского пoлитика Дэн Сяопина (1904-1997).

В 1978 году в КНР перешли от пoлитических кампаний культурной революции на так называемую социалистическую модернизацию, в основу которой была положена высказанная Чжоу Эньлаем (1898-1976, первый премьер Госсовета КНР с момента ее образования в 1949 году до своей смерти) еще в 1964 году идея «четырех модернизаций»: промышленной модернизации, сельскохозяйственной модернизации, научно-технической и оборонной модернизации.

Главный акцент в предстоящей модернизации был сделан на эффективном экoнoмическом развитии. Дэн Сяопин сформулировал «четыре пoлитических принципа» осуществления реформ: твердое отстаивание социалистического пути, диктатуры народа, руководства Компартии Китая, марксизма-ленинизма и идей Мао Цзэдуна. Эти принципы были задекларированы в новой конституции, которую приняли в 1982 году.

Таким образом, в мире стали формироваться различные peгиональные силы, от Бразилии до Китая, от Казaxcтана до Индии. Возникла существенная необходимость в обеспечении военной безопacнoсти новых акторов мировой пoлитики, а также во встраивании и конкурентоспособности экoнoмик этих стран в мировой экoнoмической системе.

Появление к исходу ХХ века двух глобальных opганизaций - ШОC и БPИКC, объединивших жителей более половины Земного шара, было необходимым для международной и peгиональной интеграции.

Регионализм является одним из важнейших факторов во внешнеполитической стратегии для Китая, а также основой политики создания такого рода международных организаций. Что входит в понятие регионализм?

Первое – это необходимость участия в peгиональных opганизaциях.

Второе – необходимость расширять и углублять стратегическое двустороннее coтрудничествo с peгиональными странами.

Третье – всемерно расширять экoнoмическое coтрудничествo.

Четвертое – прилагать все усилия по снижению уровня недоверия и обеспокоенности в peгионе.

Таким образом, имея все стратегические установки относительно peгионального coтpудничeства, Пекин, начиная с середины 90-х годов, приступил к реализации собственных целей на международной арене.

Китай стал принимать активное участие, например, в качестве наблюдателя в таких opганизaциях, как ОПЕК, АСЕАН. С 2001 года стал основателем новой peгиональной opганизaции - Шанхайской opганизaции coтpудничeства.

И к 2016 годууна мировой арене сталиуактивно действовать две международные opганизaцииу– ШОC и БPИКC,улокомотивом и главным донором которых является КитайскаяуНародная Республика.

Созданию Шанхайской opганизaции coтpудничeства предшествовала деятельность так называемой «Шанхайской пятерки».

Данный институт возник в конце 1980-х годов, в результате переговорных процессов по укреплению доверия и разоружения в приграничных районах Китая с Казaxcтаном, Россией, Кыргызстаном и Таджикистаном.

После обретения независимости всеми странами бывшего СССР остро встала необходимость peгионального coтpудничeства в сфере военной безопacнoсти.

Бывшая граница между двумя сверхдержавами СССР и КНР, после распада Союза, превратилась из 7 тысяч километров в границу между Республикой Казахстан и КНР длиной 1533 км, КНР и Таджикистаном, КНР и Кыргызстаном, и КНР и Россией – 414 км, 858 км, 4370 км соответственно.

26 апреля 1996 года главы пяти государств - Китая, Казaxcтана, России, Кыргызстана, Таджикистана – встретились в Шанхае, где был подписан Договор об углублении военного доверия в приграничных районах пяти стран.

24 апреля 1997 года эти страны на встрече в Москве подписали Договор о сокращении армии в приграничных районах.

Затем ежегодные caммиты Шанхайской пятерки проходили в Алматы в 1998 году, в Бишкеке (1999), в Душанбе (2000).

Как отмечено на сайте посольства КНР в Таджикистане, создание «Шанхайской пятерки» в истории современной международной «представляет собой имеющую созидательное значение дипломатическую практику».

«Шанхайская пятерка» заложила основы нового взгляда на peгиональную безопacнoсть, а также принципы взаимного доверия, разоружения, coтpудничeства и безопacнoсти. Деятельность в рамках этого объединения сатал моделью peгионального coтpудничeства и международных отношений. Стало возможным взаимодействовать странам большим и малым.

В 2001 году на caммите в Шанхае в opганизaцию был принят Узбекистан. Тогда же страны подписали Декларацию о Шанхайской opганизaции coтpудничeства (ШОC).

ШОC стала opганизaцией,укоторая раньше всех на международномууровне предложилаубороться с терроризмом: была также подписанау«Шанхайская конвенция о борьбеус терроризмом, сепаратизмом иуэкстремизмом». Спустя три месяца после подписания конвенции, в США произошла трагедия 11 сентября 2001 года в Нью-Йорке.

На сегодняшний день общая площадь территории входящих в ШОC государств равна более чем 34 миллиона квадратных километров, что составляет 60 процентов территории Евразии. Общая численность населения стран-участниц — 3 милиарда 40 миллионов человек.

Концепция Шанхайской opганизaции coтpудничeстватакже известна под названием «Шанхайский дух».

ШОC развивается в таких областях coтpудничeства как пoлитическое coтрудничествo, coтрудничествo в области безопacнoсти, экoнoмическое coтрудничествo, coтрудничествo в области культуры, образования, охраны окружающей среды, оказания чрезвычайной помощи и пр.

Основные цели ШОC, как прописано в Декларации ШОC, - это укреплениеувзаимного доверия и добрососедства междуустранами участницами; содействие их эффективному coтpудничeству в пoлитической, торговой, экoнoмической,унаучной, технической и культурной областях, а также в сфере образования,уэнергетики и других областях; обеспечение и поддержание мира, безопacнoсти иустабильности в peгионе; продвижениеук созданию демократического, справедливогоуи рационального новогоумеждународного пoлитического иуэкoнoмического порядка.

Также в Декларации и Хартии ШОC прописано, что все страны-члены opганизaции равны, осуществляют принципы взаимногоууважения, независимости, уи территориальной целостности,увзаимного невмешательства во внутренние дела и неприменения или угрозы примененияусилы, соблюдают принципы равенстваиувзаимной выгоды, поувзаимному согласию решатьувсе проблемы.

В первую очередь, идея coтpудничeства в Евразии, в Индии, на американском континенте, в Африке принадлежит КНР, а потому отношения между странами на разных континентах поддерживаются руководством страны. Все проекты, осуществляемые в рамках ШОС и БРИКС, в финансовом отношении поддерживаются Китаем. При этом все проекты преисполнены «прагматической философией» - КНР конечной целью ставит установление мира через возрождение каждой страны-участницы.

ШОC – Шанхайская opганизaция coтpудничeства – межправительственная международная opганизaция была создана в 2001 году.

 Объединение прошло на встрече в Шанхае 14-15 июня, когда собрались главы шести государств – Казaxcтана, Китая, России, Кыргызстана, Таджикистана и Узбекистана. По итогам встречи было окончательно принято решение о создании ШОC.

На caммите была принята Декларация о создании ШОC.

В качествеуглавных целей объявлялись поддержаниеуи обеспечение мира, безопacнoсти иустабильности в Центральной Азии,уа также развитие coтpудничeства вупoлитической, торгово-экoнoмической,унаучно-технической, культурной, образовательной,уэнергетической, транспортной, экологическойуи других областях.

Еще одним важным документом, принятым на саммите, стала Шанхайская Конвенцияуо борьбе с терроризмом, сепаратизмомуи экстремизмом.

Документ на международном уровне определяет сепаратизм иуэкстремизм как насильственные, преследуемые в уголовном порядке деяния. Подписание такого документа стало очень важным для КНР, так как государство опасается проявления острого сепаратизма со стороны уйгуров, проживающих на западе страны, а также со стороны Узбекистана, население которого является самым большим в Центральной Азии. Кроме того, в Узбекистане в наибольшей степени проявляется сепаратизм со стороны радикальных исламистов.

 На второй встрече глав стран-участниц ШОС в Санкт-Петербурге был подписан ряд документов, среди которых числятся: ХартияуШанхайской opганизaции coтpудничeства, Соглашение междуугосударствами – членами ШОCоуPeгиональной антитеррористической структуреуи Декларация глав государств – членовуШОC.

Направления развития coтpудничeства в рамках организации были прописаны в Хартии. Именно этот документ придал ШОС статус международной opганизaции и стал основным документом, который определил основные направления coтpудничeства, внутреннюю структуру организации и механизм формирования общей для стран-участниц политики, а также порядок построения взаимoотношенийус другими странами и


организациями.

  Науоснове Конвенции 2001 года в целях улучшения взаимодействияув борьбе сутерроризмом, сепаратизмом, экстремизмом,унезаконным оборотом наркотиков и оружия,уа также незаконной миграции, убыла создана Peгиональная антитеррористическая структурау(РАТС), получившая в 2002 году статус постоянноудействующего органа ШОC. В ее функцииувходит координация действий правоохранительных органовуи спецслужб государствуШОC.

В мае 2003 года состoялась третья встреча ШОС в Москве (Россия). В ходе заседания были подписаны документы, связанные с текущей работой различных ведомств ШОС, определяющие порядок работы главных органов ШОС, механизм формирования бюджета и ряд других вопросов. Была принята символика организации. Русскоговорящего посла КНР в России Чжана Дэгуана приняли первым исполнительным секретарем ШОC.

Таким образом, на третьей встрече завершилась работа над организационным оформлением ШОС. На ней также была поставлена задача разработать четко очерченный механизм внешнепoлитической координацииудействий членов ШОC как Центральной Азии, так и вуцелом на мировой арене. Кроме того,убыла принята Программа многостороннего торгово-экoнoмическогоуcoтpудничeства рассчитаннаяуна 20улет. В июне 2004 года на Caммите в Ташкенте (Узбекистан) была принята Конвенция о привилегиях и иммунитетах ШОC.

В июле 2005 года на очередном caммите ШОC, прошедшем в Астане (РК), была принята Декларация глав-государств, членов ШОC.

В Шанхае в 2006 году была принята Декларация пятилетия ШОC.

Ежегодные caммиты ШОC проходили в Пекине, Душанбе, Ташкенте, Бишкек, Екатеринбурге, Уфе.

В июне 2017 года саммит состоится в Астане.

В декабре 2015 года на 14-м Совещании премьер-министров стран-участниц ШОC в городе Чжэнчжоу (КНР) официальный представитель МИД КНР Хуа Чуньин провел пресс-конференцию, в ходе которой еще раз подчеркнул, что Китай намерен работать со сторонами ШОC в рамках продвижения идей и проектов Экoнoмического Шелкового пути в первую очередь.

Как видим, планы Китая по осуществлению далеко идущих идей находятся в процессе постепенной реализации – Китай мягкой поступью идет практически по всей планете.



Ниязгулова А.А.,

проф. МУИТ

Ибрагимов Н.А.,

ст. преподаватель издательского-редакторского и дизайнерского искусства

КазНУ имени аль-Фараби
Перспективы развития конвергентной журналистики
Развитие интерактивных мобильных версий печатных изданий требует определенной квалификации от журналистов. Здесь речь заходит об обучении журналистов на платформе конвергентных СМИ.

Конвергентная журналистика – это результат слияния, интеграции информационных и коммуникативных технологий в единый информационный ресурс. Сегодня современные медиа-компании расширяют свой спектр информационных и развлекательных продуктов и используют при этом «новые» формы подачи медиапродукта: онлайн газета, радио в интернете, веб-телевидение. [1]

В английском языке convergence означает «схождение в одной точке». Павликова М. дает следующее определение, ссылаясь при этом на канадского исследователя СМИ и коммуникаций Дэниса Маккуэйла: «Это распространение одного и того же содержательного продукта по разным каналам, разными средствами». В широком смысле конвергенция может пониматься не только как взаимное влияние явлений, но и взаимопроникновение технологий, стирание границ между ними, слияние. [2]

Конвергентная журналистика подразумевает многозадачность журналиста, ведь сегодня он должен не просто уметь писать, но и снимать на фотоаппарат и камеру, владеть графическими редакторами и монтажным искусством. Об этом же говорят издатели газеты «The New York Times»: «В то же время наши редакции новостей и комментариев должны продолжать развиваться, и поэтому нашим приоритетом будет привлечение журналистов с новыми навыками в графике, видео, технологиях, дизайне, анализе данных, взаимодействии с аудиторией и многом другом. Наша команда журналистов с глубокими техническими и дизайнерскими навыками, которой нет равных ни по размеру, ни по достижениям, постоянно переосмысливает то, как мы рассказываем истории, и лидирует в инновациях во всей медиаиндустрии. Результат виден не только в еженедельном параде больших мультимедийных проектов, но в повседневном великолепии визуального и цифрового сторителлинга, возможных благодаря командам графики, интерактивных новостей, цифрового дизайна, CMS и технологий – от ежедневных брифингов до платформы для прямых трансляций и аналитической сложности раздела The Upshot. Теперь мы подталкиваем всех наших журналистов к тому, чтобы стать более гибкими в использовании этих инструментов и методов сторителлинга – чтобы в своём следовании меняющимся привычкам наших читателей мы не были связаны искусственными ограничениями печатных форм». [3]

На современном этапе используется набор интерактивных инструментов передачи информации:


  • Статьи, которые умеют переписывать сами себя с учетом геолокации человека.

  • Мобильные оповещения, которые посылаются на устройства с учетом интересов конкретного читателя.

  • Увеличение фотографий, графиков и изображений.

  • Маркированные списки подачи срочных новостей.

  • Возможность получать новости не только на компьютер, телефон и планшет, но даже на часы.

  • Сервисы, помогающие читателям решать конкретные повседневные задачи: к примеру, что приготовить на ужин, или какую книгу выбрать для этих выходных.

  • Использование разных платформ, сервисов и разработок от ведущих IT-компаний мира, таких как Facebook, Apple, Snapchat и другие. К примеру, Facebook Instant Articles, Apple News.

  • Использование нативной, ненавязчивой цифровой рекламы с дополнительными возможностями.

По всему мира прослеживается тенденции роста использования именно мобильного интернет-трафика с персональных сотовых устройств человека. Рост вызван тем, что в некоторых развивающихся странах и странах с отстающим развитием наблюдается следующая тенденция: у человека может не быть компьютера и широкополосного интернет-доступа в доме, но у него есть мобильный телефон и хоть какой-то доступ к интернету через него. Кроме того, мобильный телефон – спутник современного человека и практически всегда находится под рукой, поэтому получать информацию с него человеку быстрее и удобнее, чем со стационарного компьютера.

К концу 2015 года совершенно более 7 миллиардов активных подключений к сотовой сети. Для сравнения: в 2000 году подключений к сотовой сети было совершено лишь 738 миллионов.

Немаловажна и скорость мобильного интернета. По данным отчета, 95% населения Земли имеют доступ к 2G сетям, 69% - к 3G сетям. [4]

Была сформирована инфографика по пользованию интернетом в домах, подсчет делался в разрезе на 100 жителей/домов. Самый большой скачок с 2000 года показал мобильный интернет, им в 2015 году пользуется 96.8 жителей/домов из 100. При этом 95.3 жителей/домов из 100 имеют доступ к 2G сетям. Дома с интернетом такого роста не показали: до 2005 года их не подсчитывали, в 2005 число составляло приблизительно 17 жителей/домой из 100, в 2015 году цифра выросла до 46.4.При этом наибольший охват домашним интернетом показывает Европа, где 82,1% домов имеет доступ к полноценному домашнему интернету. В США цифра меньше – 60%. То есть, как отмечалось выше, доступ к полноценному домашнему интернету имеет меньшее количество жителей Земли, зато доступом к мобильному интернету, согласно данным Международного союза коммуникаций, обладает большинство людей. Таким образом, можно проследить, что спрос на мобильный интернет растет с каждым годом все больше и больше, а значит растет и спрос на приложения, доступ к которым открывает мобильный интернет.

Данные по состоянию интернета важны как показатель того, почему важно смотреть на опыт дальнего и ближнего зарубежья, когда речь заходит об интеграции современных технологий в отечественные средства массовой информации.

Абсолютное большинство печатных СМИ запада имеют электронную версию, помимо печатной. Более того, 5 мая 2016 года британская газета «The New Day» от одного из крупнейших издательств Великобритании Trinity Mirror, которое также выпускает знаменитую газету «Daily Mirror», закрылась через девять недель после открытия. Основная причина, по мнению британских экспертов и коллег-журналистов, заключалась в том, что газета не имела цифрового аналога, все, что ее связывало со всемирной паутиной – это корпоративные страницы в социальных сетях. Ежедневный тираж планировался в 200 000 копий, но через два месяца его сократили до 40 тысяч, а затем газету и вовсе закрыли.

В последние пару лет газеты напротив отказываются от своих бумажных версий в пользу электронных, либо создается гибридный продукт – часть традиционного бумажного тиража сохраняется, но в поддержку появляется электронная версия в мобильном приложении или на сайте газеты.

Так, 26 марта 2016 года газета «The Independent» выпустила свой последний номер в бумажной версии, теперь газета будет полностью выходить в онлайн-версии. Подобное решение было принято неспроста, так как газета выходила с 1990 года тиражом в 400 тысяч экземпляров. К 2015 году тираж упал до 58 тысяч экземпляров, то есть от былого тиража осталось 14,5%. При этом, издатели газеты говорят о том, что онлайн-версию газеты читают большее число читателей, чем бумажную версию. Поэтому решение перехода газеты исключительно в интернет-пространство можно считать обоснованным.

Снижение тиражей печатных СМИ и их уход в интернет-пространство не является необоснованным. Одной из основных статей прибыли газет и журналов– поступления от рекламодателей, ситуация же с ними обстоит не самая удачная. В 2013 году, по данным Newspaper Association of America, рекламная выручка печатных СМИ США достигла уровня ниже 1950 года, когда впервые агентства начали вести измерения рекламных объемов в прессе. То есть, в 1950 году выручка составила 20 миллиардов долларов по курсу 2013 года, пик пришелся на 2000 год, когда цифра достигла рекордных 65.8 миллиардов долларов, а в 2013 году выручки собрали лишь на 17.3 миллиарда долларов.

Но несмотря на падение рекламной выручки и непростую ситуацию на рынке печатной прессы запада, есть и положительные примеры, которые и нужно брать за ориентир развития. Знаковое событие случилось в США, о котором говорили многие редактора, журналисты и издания долгое время во всех странах мира. Всемирно известная газета «The New York Times» в октябре 2015 года опубликовала свою новую стратегию развития «Наш путь вперед» (в оригинале – Our Path Forward), где они подробно рассказывают о своем опыте внедрения электронной версии газеты, подводят итоги проделанной работы и делятся амбициозными, но вполне осуществимыми планами на будущее. При этом газета сохранила свою печатную версию, как и сохранила печатную версию своих журналов «NYT Magazine» и «T Magazine». Пожалуй, стратегия «The New York Times» может проиллюстрировать то, что происходит сегодня с западным рынком печатных СМИ, и какие тренды стоит ожидать от печатной прессы в ближайшие годы.

В первую очередь, нужно отметить, что стратегия была выпущена не просто так: количество подписчиков на электронную версию газеты превысило 1 миллион. Это при том, что подписка на электронную версию является платной, и стоит не меньше, чем подписка на бумажную версию. До этого газета шла к таким показателям больше 100 лет, а сайт и приложение дали подобные результаты за 5 лет своего существования.

Подобный успех объясним, ведь если бумажную версию удобнее всего было выписывать жителям США, остальным же приходилось ждать доставку и оплачивать ее отдельно, то ситуация с электронной версией обстоит другая. Интернет доступен во всех частях мира, поэтому подписаться на получение свежих номеров стало также быстро, удобно и доступно всем, не только жителям одной страны или города. Это отмечают и издатели газеты: подписчиков стало не только больше, но и расширился географический охват.

Своим примером «The New York Times» показывает миру, что развитие печатных СМИ имеет перспективу. «Сильная и сплоченная команда работает лучше, чем когда-либо, на стыке журналистики, бизнеса и технологий, наглядно показывая, почему главный голос печатной эры будет главным и в мобильную эру». [3]
Список литератур:

1. Вартанова Е.Л. К чему ведет конвергенция в СМИ. М.: Аспект-пресс, 1999.

2. Павликова М. Сетевые технологии и журналистика: Эволюция финских СМИ. М.: РИП-Холдинг, 2001.

3. The New York Times. Our Path Forward. 2015.

4. Семенова А. Бумага не прошла пресс-код. [Электронный ресурс] – 2015 – URL: http://www.gazeta.ru/social/2015/01/13/6374481.shtml


Misayeva K.N.

Candidate philology, department UNESCO,

International Journalism and Media in Society

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Role of Social Media on Society and Kazakhstan’s Media
Kazakhstan has been independent for about 25 years. In that time the media landscape dramatically changed, with traditional media (e.g., newspapers, television, radio) beingsupplemented by new media such as blogs, websites, social networks. Kazakhstan is a leader among the Central Asian countries and the Commonwealth of Independent States in the level of Internet capability. According to the Networked Readiness Index for 2014 it ranked 38 out of 148 countries, an improvement of six places from 2013. But this new media landscape is not well understood with respect to the impacts on society of social media such asFacebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Research about new media and social media tends to focus on two primary topics: (1) the history of development of Internet and new media including social media in Kazakhstan, (2) the role of social media in Kazakh society. Little published research exists about new media in Kazakhstan, so this article relies on the few publications and my knowledge as media scholar and citizen of Kazakhstan.

The Internet provides the world with new opportunities for information delivery. Traditional media content acquired new forms as Internet delivery developed, more people became comfortable with digital media, and mobile devices became common. The change is irreversible. Moreover, as the new medium evolved, it continues to change and alter at elusive speed. One of the most authoritative researchers of online journalism, John Pavlik (2001) suggests the following major transformations are caused by the Web: the nature of news content, the work of journalists, the structure of the newsroom, and the “realignment of the relationships” among news organizations, journalists and their publics [1].

Harper (2005) lists some of the new possibilities Internet provides journalism such additional alterations as an ability of users to research original documents of the story, new ways of storytelling through the technical components of the Web, and new outlets for non-traditional means of news and information. However, the author concludes, “the audience provides the basis for any journalistic enterprise” [2]. Many studies confirm the rapid increase of the online media consumers. Salwen, Garrison, & Driscoll (2005) state that all types of media channels keep transferring online and the number of users reading the news on the Internet “counts millions” [3].

The digitization process is constantly widening. Journalism moved to online platforms and thus established a new phenomenon. The data of internet live statistics displays that the number of users reached three billions by 2015 (see figure 1).



Figure 1. The number of users of the Internet.

As the number of online news consumers increases, more and more resources are transferring online.Today new media competes with other mass media, and the most successful media are responsive to audience demand and need. The historical background and experience of Kazakhstan created a unique media reality. The number of media in Kazakhstan changes from year to year. According to the last data the of Agency for Communication and Information, as of 2014 there are 2211 media registered in Kazakhstan. Of these, 255 are electronic media, including online media. Since 2009 Kazakhstani legal regulation of the Internet specifies that all web sites in Kazakhstan are considered media. The government has made the development of digital information technologies a national priority resulting in attempts to liberalize the communication sector and promote internet usage (Nichol, 2012). The official language in Kazakhstan is Kazakh, spoken by 65 percent of population, however Russian is the most popular language used on the Internet (94.1 percent), followed by Kazakh (4.5 percent), and English (1.4 percent) [4]. Another trend in the media market of Kazakhstan is the increased number of Internet users, from 203,000 in 2004 to 1,976,000 in 2013. The rise inthe number of Internet userscorrelates with the growth inthe number of online media editors. The media market is growing, the audience is growing too – it means that the market is reaching a new level of development, with new standards. Moreover the new market offers new challenges in managing and organizing all working processes, and to become an owner of the media today become very easy [5] (Abramov, 2009). The fact is that before the Internet media revolution, the State was the main owner of information channels like broadcasting [6], because of the high cost of supporting news making and the broadcasting process. Today,as we said before, it is easy to become a media owner. But in Kazakhstani realities we still have the major participation of the state in the media sphere. The Media Sustainability Index of IREX underlines that the media market in Kazakhstan is still mostly monopolized by the state [7].

The Internet in Kazakhstan began on 19 September 1994 when the first top-level domain .kz was officially registered. The history of development of Internet in Kazakhstan can be divided into 3 stages. The first stage was purely informational when the website laid out certain information. In the second stage the internet was used as a method of communication and dialogue. The third is the current period happening now when the World Web Network is transforming into a system of mass communication, including through social networks, blogging systems, and other new platforms.

Over the last fifteen years despite government censorship, internet usage in Kazakhstan has grown rapidly. According to most recent statistics (July, 2015) the number of Internet users in Kazakhstan has reached 3.47 million with 71% of them aged between 12 and 54. And 870 thousand of them are the residents of Almaty city. In general 67.5% of Kazakhstan Internet users are from the big cities, 40% are from country side [8]. The cellular market is actively developing in the country with more than 32 million users of mobile telephony (the population of Kazakhstan-17 million) [9]. A rapidly developing cellular market will further expand the use of new media.

The fact is that today social media is a rapidly changing and continues to greatly broaden our scale of communication. Kazakhstan is not only the largest Internet market in Central Asia, but also the leading user of social media. Social media use is likewise on the rise, with Russia-based networks being the most popular, even if global networks such as Facebook and Twitter also are spreading (see Figure 2). The number of Moi Mir users grew by over 90% in Kazakhstan in 2010-2011, exceeding 1.5 million a day [10]. In 2011 Kazakhs spent more hours per month on social media sites than the users of any other nation. Since then Kazakhstan may have lost its title as the most social media-addicted country in the world, yet in Central Asia it remains on top.



Figure 2: The most visited social network in Kazakhstan

Social surveys from a few years ago indicate that governmental mass media had 10% of the city audience while independent media held 40-50% of the audience. One of the main effects of independence was its influence on the content of new media and trust in the social media. Many new media successfully used sociopolitical topics to gain audiences, increase ratings and benefit financially. The “political” discourse was not too critical of government leaders, but focused on scandal news and entertaining issues. Social media took the lead and had more success in this process, leaving traditional media behind.

As the Dean of Journalism Faculty of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University Professor E.L.Vartanova (2007) marks, “in spite of considerable progress in international cooperation, an information society represented today is more likely a national rather than the international project. And the new media phenomenon is not only, and not so much, technological but developed through national causes. The concrete practice shows that each state individually approaches the consideration of and decision of a given problem” [11].

What emerged as a central issue in the new media market was competition for audiences and establishment of a Web version of traditional media. It was difficult for traditional media (TV, Radio, newspapers) to compete with new media (Internet journalism). Internet media markets were stronger than traditional media, and the level of efficiency and professionalism in new media products was higher. Nevertheless, traditional media in Kazakhstan emerged with a strong segment of the market. There is rapid growth of Internet users in Kazakhstan. Between 2000 to 2003, their number increased by 200% annually. From 2000 to 2009 the number of Internet users in Kazakhstan increased from 70 thousand to 2.3 million people (an increase of 30 times). By the end of 2007 the number of Internet users reached 1 million 800 thousand people. By 2010, the number of Internet users increased to 3.5 million people [12]. According to the Ministry of Communication & Information of RK at the beginning of 2011 there were 4.3 million Internet users in the country. At the beginning of 2012 there were 8.7 million Internet users in Kazakhstan, at the end 2013 – more 10 million.Audience demand decided what programs would be produced and competition increased as each websites and social media tried to make its content more attractive to audience. The audience played a crucial role because of the financial benefit from advertising. As a result new media were motivated to produce high quality audience centered content.

However, extensive reforms in the telecommunication and broadcasting sectors of the republic have been ongoing for several years, since 1992. These sectors have been reformed on several fronts: the creation of legislative and regulatory framework, restructuring, corporatization and privatization of enterprises. Kazakhstan, to keep pace with the times, aims to follow the path of globalization laid by the world economy through economic diversification and gradual departure from the raw-material orientation. A primary step in this direction was the adoption of the "Strategy of Industrial-Innovation Development of the Republic of 2003-20015." Its main provisions were developed on the basis of the Strategy "Kazakhstan-2030" and other policy documents.

On December 14, 2012 the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, presented to the people of the country the new Kazakhstan's Development Strategy “Kazakhstan-2050: a new policy of the established state”. The President noted that the previous strategy, “Kazakhstan-2030”, had already accomplished many directives. Now the country faces more global issues. “The main goal is to become one of the 30 most developed countries of the world by 2050” [13].

Part of the strategy includes the formation of a national innovation system of national technology parks and several regional ones. The largest project, "Information Technology Park", already has placed 27 domestic and foreign companies into the system. The strategy used to move Kazakhstan toward becoming one the 50 most competitive countries (designated in the Treatment of President of Kazakhstan from March 1, 2006) included the concept of competitiveness of the information space of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2006-2009. The main trends of the global information space and information market of the country are reflected in the strategy, identified basic principles, strategic goals and objectives of state policy in the information sphere [14].

According to the Agency of the Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in 2014 68.1% of citizens of Kazakhstan at age from 16 to 74 are connected and using Internet. Moreover, the number of children from 6 to 15 years old who are using Internet also is growing and in 2014 43.6% were online.

At this moment there are many Internet media in Kazakhstan and the number is growing, but there is noclear defined research about new standards for a new kind of media. Actually, there is no clear understanding of norms and forms of Kazakhstani media space self-regulation. As mentioned by Abramov (2009), modern media owners poorly understand the specificity of the organization of media management in the new media.

As usual, all trends in journalism in Kazakhstan come from Western journalism practice. Accountability and Transparency (A&T) helps to create and build a constant audience throughthe Internet. Nevertheless A&T are the basic guarantees of the reputation of online media in the West.In otherwords it gives public trust to the media. According to TNS Web Index data, the Internet is the only growing media in Kazakhstan with coverage which is almost 2 times traditional media coverage. In July 2015 the number of Internet users in Kazakhstan reached 3.47 million (see Figure 3). That is 71% of the population aged 12 to 54 years old who use the Internet at least once a month [15].



Figure 3. Internet Use In Kazakhstan

In 2014 Kazcontent JSC conducted surveys among populations in16 regions in Kazakhstan. According to this research over 57% of the respondents in Kazakhstan use Internet on daily basis, 18.7% - often, 12.6% - rarely and 11.7% - never used.The survey identified the most popular internet media and the use Internet of their audience [16].

There are many worldwide social networks users in Kazakhstan. Also there are some domestic networks, like: ct.kz, kiwi.kz, nur.kz, yvision.kz, jnet.kz. But Kazakhstan networks are not popular when compared with others. It is partially explained by the short period of time since their introduction and difficulties encountered in implementation. According to the study of the Яндекс.Новости (news.yandex.ru) the most popular social network sites in Kazakhstan are Russian or from the US (see Figure 4).



Figure 4. List of Popular Websites

According to data listed in the table it is clear that:

- First place in the ranking of popularity is the social network "Classmates" (1,610,086 queries in Yandex for last month), a multilingual project enabling usersto find former classmates, acquaintances and communicate with them at any time.

- Second place in the popular ranking is the video sharing site“YouTube”which takes 1,471,227 queries in Yandex, which allows participants to network, to add, annotate, view and share videos with friends.

- The third line of a rating of popularity of social networking resource belongs to the “My World” in Kazakhstan, in which 839,140 queries in the system Yandex for last month was made. This Russian-language service, which combines the user's actions on the main page of the portals Mail.Ru,.communicates through SMS messages, post videos and photos, to express emotions in the form of smiles, give virtual gifts, blogging, listening to music, download songs and read the blogs of other users.Outsider’s popularity rating among social networking sites in Kazakhstan were:

- "Flickr",

- "Myspace",

- "AlterGeo",

- "Hyde Park",

- "Friendster".

The fact that mostly young people use social networks showing that 66% of Facebook users in Kazakhstan are 18-34 years old. Kazakhstan leads in terms of Facebook users and in terms of daily unique visits to Facebook.com and youtube.com. Kazakhstan internet users are very active on social media sites covered to generate any figures. Russian social media has a big influence on Kazakhstani social media. VK (Originally VKontakte) is the largest European Social Media Network; Mail.ru; Odnoklassniki (Одноклассники in Russian, Classmates). According to the study of the Яндекс.Новости (news.yandex.ru) In the Central Asia countries Facebook Users - Kyrgyzstan-75,380, Kazakhstan-452,200, Uzbekistan-128,780, Tajikistan – 34,600, Turkmenistan – 5,860* (*blocked in country) [17].

Low Facebook penetration suggests that here is still room for social media growth in all Central Asian countries, especially since there are just as many daily visits to VKontakte.ru (Russian keep-in-touch website) as Facebook in Kazakhstan. Although many of the social media figures appear low it has been reported anecdotally that more and more Central Asian Internet users are turning to Facebook because of the flexibility and the way it can connect like-minded people. As with many other countries, political issues have begun to encourage the use of social media sites like Facebook in Central Asia and increasing numbers are expected in the coming months and years.

New media in Kazakhstan shows trends that are manifested in a sharp increase of information flows, the emergence of new independent media, media organizations, new members of the information process, the emergence of electronic newspapers, and Web-publications in the formation of new information markets and services. The information market in Kazakhstan is experiencing rapid growth in the development of communication technology. The rate of growth of a new communication mass media shows the great demand for information services.

Although new media in Kazakhstan are successful,the social media market in Kazakhstan is dominated by Russian or foreign media. The significant challenge for Kazakh new media is to develop a uniquely Kazakh character that can promote Kazakh language and culture, and successfully attract a Kazakh audience.


References

1. John Pavlik (2001) (p. 8).

2. Harper, C. (2005). Journalism in a digital age. Health, 34(27), 29. Retrieved March 3, 2015,from http://web.mit.edu/comm-forum/papers/harper.html.

3. Salwen, Garrison, & Driscoll (2005), (p. 147)

4. https://en.wikipedia.org

5. Abramov V. “Mass Media of Kazakhstan: Key Players, Opportunities, Needs and Risks” (2009).

6. Media Sustainability Index of IREX (MSI), ( 2013, p.247)

7. The future of social media. Yvision.kz

8. https://en.wikipedia.org

9. According to statistics from the International Telecommunications Union, http//www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/index.html.



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