Joe and His London Taxi Sometimes people ask me, “What is the strangest thing that has ever happened to you, as a taxi driver, something typical of England?” It’s difficult to answer. But one of the strangest things that ever happened to me was during the great fog1.
Foreigners always think that Britain is nothing but fog every winter from October to March. It’s not like that really. But in November and December of that year we did have some rather bad fog in England.
The first night the fog came down very suddenly. I was driving someone from Piccadilly to Richmond. I took my usual short-cut2 through Richmond Park. It’s a lovely place with big trees, lakes and herds of deer3. At week-ends people go there for picnics, and every evening men go there to run. To run? Yes, to run. Running for health is rather popular nowadays.
Well, we met a group of those men, running through the park.
“Not my favourite sport,” I said to my passenger.
I left my passenger at her house and drove back to London. I turned into Richmond Park again. I soon realized that it was a mistake. The fog was really thick4. The further I drove into the park, the thicker the fog became. I turned on my head-lights. It didn’t help much.
Suddenly I saw something standing on the road in front of me. I braked and stopped. The figure moved away. It was a deer, I was sure. Then I saw another figure on the road, but it was a strange deer. It stood there in the light of my fog lamp … wearing shorts, a white shirt and running shoes. It was one of those runners. I stopped and opened my window. The man put his head in.
“Terribly sorry!” he said. “We’re lost!”
“Jump in!” I said. “Haven’t I seen you here before?”
“There are 15 of us here!” he added.
“Oh. Well, you’d better not jump in then,” I said. Now I could see the others – strange figures in the fog, jumping up and down, now on one foot now on the other, to keep warm5.
“Follow me,” I told them. “I’ll drive slowly – I know the way out of the park.” So I drove at a ‘slow run’ for about half an hour. At last we came to the way out of the park – the runners were safe now.
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and is the largest of the terrestrial planets. The Earth is the only planet in our solar system not to be named after a Greek or Roman deity. The Earth was formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago and is the only known planet to support life.
Facts About The Earth:
-The Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing.
This deceleration is happening almost imperceptibly, at approximately 17 milliseconds per hundred years, although the rate at which it occurs is not perfectly uniform. This has the effect of lengthening our days, but it happens so slowly that it could be as much as 140 million years before the length of a day will have increased to 25 hours.
-The Earth was once believed to be the centre of the universe.
Due to the apparent movements of the Sun and planets in relation to their viewpoint, ancient scientists insisted that the Earth remained static, whilst other celestial bodies travelled in circular orbits around it. Eventually, the view that the Sun was at the centre of the universe was postulated by Copernicus, though this is also not the case.
-Earth has a powerful magnetic field.
This phenomenon is caused by the nickel-iron core of the planet, coupled with its rapid rotation. This field protects the Earth from the effects of solar wind.
-There is only one natural satellite of the planet Earth.
As a percentage of the size of the body it orbits, the Moon is the largest satellite of any planet in our solar system. In real terms, however, it is only the fifth largest natural satellite.
-Earth is the only planet not named after a god.
The other seven planets in our solar system are all named after Roman gods or goddesses. Although only Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn were named during ancient times, because they were visible to the naked eye, the Roman method of naming planets was retained after the discovery of Uranus and Neptune.
-The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System.
This varies according to the part of the planet; for example, the metallic core is denser than the crust. The average density of the Earth is approximately 5.52 grams per cubic centimetre.
Daily life and Shopping
Shopping Shopping has common elements wherever it takes place. A buyer looks for a seller who is offering something the buyer wants or needs at a price the buyer can afford to pay.
Sellers often advertise their wares in newspapers, on the radio or TV, on posters etc. Sellers use a variety of tactics to induce buyers to purchase from them at a price which leaves some profit.
Shopping is a part of our daily life. And we have to deal with it whether we like it or not. There are people who hate going shopping. So they make a list of what they need and run through stores buying the needed things.
Sometimes they even don't care about the price. And there are people who go from store to store looking for goods of better quality and lower price. Those don't worry about the time they spend shopping.
But there is a very good service called Postal Market. It really helps you to save your time and get goods of high quality. You just have to look through a catalogue, choose the things you like, order them and wait a little to get them.
common — общий
buyer — покупатель
seller — продавец
price — цена
purchase — покупка
Postal Market — товары почтой
catalogue — каталог
Entertainment and Media
Mass media Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media. People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio and television.
The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten newssheet called «Acta Diurna» started in 59 B.C. Magazines appeared in 1700's. They developed from newspapers and booksellers' catalogs. Radio and TV appeared only in 20th century.
The most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media is television. It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people's homes. So one can see events in faraway places just sitting in his or her chair.
Radio is widespread for its portability. It means that radios can easily be carried around. People like listening to the radio on the beach or picnic, while driving a car or just walking down the street. The main kind of radio entertainment is music.
Newspapers can present and comment on the news in much detail in comparison to radio and TV newscasts. Newspapers can cover much more events and news.
Magazines do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events. They provide more profound analysis of events of preceeding week. Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time so they have cover and binding and are printed on better paper.
binding — переплет
Newspaper Newspaper is a publication that presents and comments on the news. Newspapers play an important role in shaping public opinion and informing people of current events.
The first newspapers were probably handwritten news-sheets posted in public places. The earliest daily newssheet was «Acta Diurna» («Daily Events») which started in Rome in 59 B.C. The first printed newspaper was Chinese publication called «Dibao» («Ti-pao») started in A.D.700's.*It was printed from carved wooden blocks, The first regularly published newspaper in Europe was «Avisa Relation» or «Zeitung», started in Germany in 1609.
Newspapers have certain advantages over other mass media — magazines, TV and radio. Newspaper can cover more news and in much detail than TV or radio newscast can do. Magazines focus on major national and international events of the preceeding week. But newspaper focuses on local news as well and provides information and comments faster than magazine can do.
There are about 1700 daily and 7500 weekly newspapers in the US. The circulation of some weeklies is no more than a few hundred of copies per issue and the circulation of some dailies is over a million of copies.
There are daily newspapers and weekly newspapers. Daily newspapers print world, national and local news. Many dailies are morning papers, others are afternoon papers. Sunday issues of the dailies are usually larger than the weekday ones. They may include special sections on such topics as entertainment, finance and travel or Sunday magazine, a guide to TV programmes, coloured comics. The major dailies in the US are «Christian Science Monitor», «New York Times», «USA Today» , «Wall Street Journal», «Washington Post».
Weekly newspapers serve usually for smaller areas. They are printed in small communities where people know each other and are interested in activities of their friends and neighbours. Weeklies report of weddings, births, deaths and news of local business and politics. Most weeklies do not print world or national news.
publication — издание
public opinion — общественное мнение
current events — текущие события
handwritten — написанный от руки
newssheet — листовка
to post — вывешивать
printed — печатный
carved wooden block — резная деревянная доска
to publish — издавать
advantage — преимущество
to cover — осветить
newscast — обзор новостей
preceeding week — прошлая неделя
to provide — предоставлять
daily — ежедневное издание
weekly — еженедельник
circulation — тираж
issue — выпуск
weekday — будний день
section — раздел
guide to TV program — программа передач
community — община
wedding — свадьба
Magazines Magazine is one of the major mass media. Magazine is a collection of articles and stories. Usually magazines also contain illustrations.
The earliest magazines developed from newspapers and booksellers catalogs. Such catalogs first appeared during the 1600's in France. In the 1700's pamphlets published at regular intervals appeared in England and America. They were literary publications. One of the first British magazines «The Gentleman's Magazine» was published from 1731 to 1914. The first American magazine was called the «American Magazine », or «A Monthly View».
Magazines provide information on a wide range of topics such as business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science, and sports. Some magazines entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography or articles about TV, or movie stars.
Magazines are designed to be kept for a longer time in comparison to newspapers and that is "why they are printed on better paper and have covers. Magazines, unlike newspapers, do not focus on daily, rapidly changing events.
There are specialized magazines intended for special business, industrial and professional groups, and consumer magazines intended for general public. There are several kinds of consumer magazines.
Children's magazines contain stories, jokes, articles on subjects especially interesting for children and instructions for making games or useful items.
Hobby magazines are intended for collectors of coins, stamps, and other items; people interested in certain sports or games; photography enthusiasts.
Intellectual magazines provide analysis of current cultural and political events. Many of them publish fiction and poetry as well.
Men's magazines focus on such topics as adventure, entertainment, men's fashion and sports.
Women's magazines deal with child-raising, fashion trends, romance. They offer ideas on cooking and home decorating. Many of the monthlies with big circulations are women's magazines.
Television Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of homes.
The name «Television» comes from Greek word meaning «far», and a Latin word meaning «to see», so the word «television» means «to see far».
About three-fourths of the 1500 TV stations in the US are commercial stations. They sell advertising time to pay for their operating costs and to make profit. The rest are public stations, which are nonprofit organizations.
Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger number of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices. These programs include light dramas called situation comedies; action-packed dramas about life of detectives, police officers, lawyers and doctors; shows featuring comedians, dancers and singers; movies; quiz shows; soap operas; cartoons. Commercial TV broadcasts also documentaries and talk shows. Documentary is dramatic, but nonfictional presentation of information. It can be programs about people, animals in faraway places or programs on such issues as alcoholism, drug abuse, racial prejudice. On talk shows a host interviews politicians, TV and movie stars, athletes, authors. There are also sport programs and brief summaries of local, national and international news. Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Commercials appear between and during most programs. They urge viewers to buy different kinds of products — from dog food to hair spray, and from cars to insurance policies.
Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. There are programs on wide range of subjects — from physics and literature to cooking and yoga. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies as well as programs about art and history. Public TV attracts less viewers than commercial TV.
Radio Radio is one of the most important means of communication. The most widespread and familiar use of radio is broadcasting. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, interviews, discussions, descriptions of sports events, advertising. People wake up to clock radios and listen to radio driving a car. They also spend much of their free time hearing their favourite programs on radio.
Radio broadcasting once had the same entertainment role as television has today. From the 1920’s to the early 1950s, in the Golden Age of Broadcasting, people gathered around their radios every night. They listened to dramas, light comedies, music, and other programs. This period ended with the rise of television.
There are more than 25 000 radio stations and more than 1 750 millions of radios in the world. A major reason for the widespread use of radio is its portability. It means that a radio can be carried around easily. People like to listen to it in homes, at beaches and picnics, while walking down the street or driving a car.
About 90% of all radio programs in the US provide entertainment and only 10% provide some kind of information. Music is the chief kind of radio entertainment. Usually, stations specialize in one kind of music such as rock, classical, country, etc. Such stations have disc jockeys who introduce and comment on the music.
Programs that provide information include newscasts, talk shows, and descriptions of sport events. Newscasts may include weather forecasts, traffic reports, stock market information. Talk shows present discussions on a current political topics such as an election or government policy or on a social issue, such as crime, pollution, poverty, racism, or sexism. Each show has a host or hostess who leads the discussion. Listeners are invited to telephone the stations to ask question or give their opinion about the topic. Most of the games played by major league baseball, basketball and hockey teams in the US and Canada are broadcast on radio.
Sport, Health and Exercise
Sports Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the developing and growth of the mankind. All over the world people of different ages are very fond of sports and games.
Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. It makes for a healthy mind in a healthy body. Sports help people to keep in good health.
We all need to exercise. Even if you don't plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest.
Exercise makes you feel and look better.
The best exercise is one which involves in repeated movements, those are: walking, jogging or swimming. Bending and stretching will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.
Among the sports popular in our country are football, basketball, swimming, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, gymnastics, figure skating. A person can choose sports and games for any season, for any taste.
humanity — человечество
activity — деятельность
to make for — способствовать
health — здоровье
to exercise — упражняться
tiredness — усталость
flexibility — гибкость
The natural world
Nature Do you know what is the most important in people’s life? This is of course nature. When we are small and when we grow up a bit we often pick up flowers, tree branches without thinking of the efforts applied to grow this or that tree or flower up.
How beautiful and rich our nature is!
In spring the first flowers – snow-drops – appear and buds grow on trees as if making first steps towards summer. Almost everyone here, where I live, have a garden or a kitchen-garden where colorful and aromatic flowers grow. When autumn comes the leaves on the trees grow yellow – it’s the time of golden autumn. There are many poems written about this time of the year. But the time of autumn is the Indian summer. And despite it is rather short it brings happiness to people, because it is a spell of the warmest and the nicest days with warm spells in winter when the sun shines when air is not too freezing.
There are special organizations in our country that try to preserve nature and protect it. It proves that there are not only people who can harm nature but also try to help it. In fact each of us must take care of the nature of the place where we live and never allow anyone and oneself to mock at it. The sacred duty of all people living on Earth is to take care of the beauty and unique shape of their mother land.
Man is closely attached to nature since the ancient times. In pagan times man worshipped it making sacrifices to it, because nature has been the main and the only provider of all living creatures. In our century – the time of progress – people’s attitude to nature has changed. People believe they are above nature they don’t respect it, never think what they’ll do if there’d be no nature – there’d be no people. For everything is connected in the world. Our nature, our environment is not only beautiful and rich, it is also defenseless and needs our protection from those who, without realizing it, try to adapt nature to their interests, destroying its unity. If we look back at people’s relations with nature we shall notice how merciless and thoughtless people sometimes try to take everything away from nature, without thinking that the resources of nature are not limitless. The time may come when there’ll be nothing to take. It’s not man who rules nature but nature that rules man. But nature is not so merciless as man, it gives chance to man to change and to repent.
It is widely known that one can watch fire and water without stop. And you, have you ever watched the flower to open its petals early in the morning? You’ve got to simply wake up early in the morning and you’ll see this magical moment. If you really love nature you’ll be struck by its beauty and you won’t want this to stop.
Have you ever observed hills and mountains? Their majesty and pride strike, their light attracts and the peaks lure you, as if promising boundless happiness. The clear waters of river make us to believe in mermaids and nixes. And a field of cornflowers and camomiles? Imagine a huge basket of camomiles or a field of camomiles white up to the horizon. You’d want to run along it and feel the aroma of the field, the warm wave of summer wind.
A thunderstorm. Such a thunderstorm that windowpanes are squeaking and it sends shivers down your spine. The raindrops are heavy and it seems that rain would never stop. And when it stops you’ll feel the relief of the heaven. Then the sun appears, bright and shining, which beckons you to play, which promises you to warm you and caress you with its rays. It promises never again to hide itself behind the clouds.
A mighty oak calls you to relax in its shade, under its big and powerful branches, where it is so cool and cosy that you feel at home and you’ll never forget this bounty.
If you look around you would see that there are only a few places untouched and wonderful natural places left. They have preserved their natural and innocent form and they’d never been broken. Red Book shows us an uneasy picture: the diversity of the animal and the plant world goes down day by day. So many species of plants and animals disappeared and their loss is irreplaceable for mankind. With the loss of one link in the chain of life on the Earth the whole chain may fail. The negative impact of humankind on nature has increased so much that there’s literally no clear air to breath.
So, our first and foremost duty is to safeguard our nature. As a Little Prince said: «When you wake up, wash you face put yourself in order – do the same with your planet».
Travel and transport
Travelling People began to travel ages ago. The very first travellers were explorers who went on trips to find wealth, fame or something else.
Their journeys were very dangerous-but still people keep on going to the unknown lands.
Nowadays it is not as dangerous and much more convenient. Do you want to go somewhere? Hundreds of companies are there to help you. They will take care about your tickets and make all the reservations needed.
You don't speak the language of the country you go to? There are interpreters that will help you.
With modern services you can go around the world. You can choose the means of transport you like: plane, train, ship, bicycle or you can travel hiking.
Tourism became a very profitable business because people are ready to spend their money for the great opportunity to have a great time learning about new countries, going sightseeing, resting and enjoying themselves.
to travel — путешествовать
journey — путешествие
dangerous — опасный
ticket — билет
train — поезд
bicycle — велосипед
profitable — доходный
to go sightseeing — осматривать достопримечательности
to enjoy — наслаждаться
Food and Drink
Meals in Britain Traditionally English people have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. Breakfast is served in the morning. It used to be a large meal with cereal, eggs and bacon, sausages, tomatoes. But such a large breakfast takes a long time to prepare and is not very healthy. Nowadays, Britain's most popular breakfast consists of cereal, toast with marmalade, juice and yogurt with a cup of tea or coffee.
Lunch is a light meal. Most people have no time to go back home for lunch so they eat at school, cafes, pubs or restaurants.
The main meal is dinner, which is usually between 6 and 7 p.m. A typical evening meal is a meat dish with vegetables and dessert.
The most important meal of the week is the Sunday dinner, which is usually eaten at 1 p.m. The traditional Sunday dish used to be roast beef, but nowadays pork, chicken or lamb are more common.
On Sunday evenings people have supper or high tea. The famous British afternoon tea is becoming rare, except at weekends.
meal — еда
cereal — овсянка, кукурузные хлопья
to prepare — готовить
to consist — состоять
light — легкий
lamb — баранина
The world of work
Getting a Job Getting a job is a very hard period in the life of most people. Companies choose an employee from hundreds of candidates according to special rules, that is why there are special "typical" factors, influencing on employers choice. Among such factors are: age, sex, experience, family background and marital status, personality and references.
If you are to go to an interview tomorrow, sleep well before it and do not forget your CV at home - is the basic rule. Moreover, there are some recommendations, which can help you. For example, read annual report, or a newspaper of the company to show your understanding of the corporate strategy on the interview. What is more, you should choose corresponding dress code for the interview. Even such advices are to help you make a good impression; some companies do not want to hire a man, who follows every advice. To illustrate this, I can quote Artemiy Lebedev, the most famous Russian web-designer: "If you enclose a standard stupid resume, written by the rules of American bureaucracy, we would delete it immediately after receiving. If your CV is composed according to all rules, we would not choose you, as we might think, that your profession is to acquire a job".
After getting a job, you may have some unexpected troubles with boss, too: e.g. if you dye your hair or wear something not appropriate. The best solution of such situation is to ask a trade union for advice, which can always help you in your fight with an employer. Of course, if you affect company discipline not coming in time or working badly, your dismissal would not be unfair.
To conclude, I can say that it is sometimes hard not only to get a job, but also to work in the staff, and if you do not want to be laid off, you should follow company rules, it is a must.
Hobbies and Qualities
My Hobby Tastes differ. Different people like different things, different people have different hobbies.
I go in for sports, I like to play tennis. I go to play tennis every day. Sport is very important part of our life. Many people go in for sports, they jogging, walking, swimming, skating, skiing, train themselves in clubs and different sections.
Physical training is an important subject at school. Pupils play volleyball, football, basketball. I have been playing tennis for 5 years. Tennis became very popular now. I take part in different competitions.
To be in a good shape I'm jogging every morning and do my morning exercises. Everyone should do all he can to stay healthy and choose the sport he is interested in. I do not understand people who say that they like sport, but they only watch sport on TV.
If one goes in for sports he feels much better, looks much better, sleeps much better. Your physical appearance will change too. You will be slimmer and trimmer. And what is even more important you will not get sick often.
Why do I go in for sports? Because I think that it is very important for a man to be strong and well-built. Sport is not for weak, because, you have to learn how to lose, and it's not easy. My favourite proverb says: "A sound mind in sound body".
to jog — бегать
to skating — кататься на коньках
to skiing — кататься на лыжах
competition — соревнование
shape — форма
health — здоровье
slim — стройный
trim — в хорошей форме
weak — слабый
to lose — проигрывать
Appearance and Manners When we speak about somebody’s figure, face, hands, feet we mean his or her appearance. A person may be tall, middle-sized or short, thin or plump. A face may be round, oval or square. In summer some people may have freckles on their faces. Old people have wrinkled faces.
People’s hair may be long or shot, thin or thick, good or bad, straight or curly. If it is long it is often plaited.
Its colour may be black or fair, chestnut or red. Old people have grey hair.
Eyes may be large or small. They may be of different colour, grey, green, black, or hazel (brown).
Cheeks may be rosy or pale (if a person is ill), plump or hollow (if a person is very Ш). Some people have dimples in their cheeks when they smile.
Women usually have their hair done at the hairdresser’s.
The manner of walking is called the walk (gait). One’s step may be: light, heavy, firm. Old people often shuffle their feet, have a shuffling gait.
Exercise and Sport
Sports in Great Britain The British are known to be great sports-lovers, so when they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. Many of the games we play now have come from Britain.
One of the most British games is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. Summer isn't summer without cricket. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour. When they consider anything unfair, they sometimes say: "That isn't cricket."
But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is Association football, or soccer. Every Saturday from late August till the beginning of May, large crowds of people support their favourite sides in football grounds. True fans will travel from one end of the country to the other to see their team play. There are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over Britain. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place at Wembley.
Rugby football is also very popular, but it is played mainly by amateurs.
Next to football, the chief spectator sport in British life is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in the races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. The Derby is perhaps the most famous single sporting event in the whole world.
Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing, boat-racing, and even races for donkeys. The famous boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of people.
A great number of people play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world. The innumerable tennis courts of Britain are occupied by people between the ages of 16 and 60 who show every degree of skill – from practically helpless to the extremely able.
The British also like to play golf, baseball, hockey, grass-hockey. Various forms of athletics, such as running, jumping, swimming, boxing are also popular. You can sometimes hear that there are no winter sports in England. Of course the English weather is not always cold enough to ski, skate, or toboggan, but winter is a good season for hunting and fishing. Indeed, sport in one form or another is an essential part of daily life in Britain.
Earth and our place in it
The Earth is our home The Earth is our home. What sort of home it is depends on how we treat it, just as the houses we live in depend on how we take care of them.
Do you like to fish or swim? Do you like to walk through the woods? Do you like to breathe fresh air? Or to watch birds and hear them sing?
If you do, we'll have to treat our Earth home in a different way. Why? Because we are making lakes and rivers too dirty for fish to live in or for people to swim in.
Because we're cutting down our forests too fast, we are spoiling the nature.
Because we're making so much smoke, dirty air often hides the sky and even nearby things. The dirty air makes it hard for us to breathe, and it can cause illness, and even death.
Because we're putting so much poison on the things birds eat, they are finding it hard to live.
Have you seen smoke pouring out of tall factory chimneys? Have you smelled the gas fumes from the back of a bus? Have you noticed the smoke from a jet plane taking off?
All of these things make the air dirty — they pollute it. In crowded cities thousands of automobiles and factories may add tons of poison to the atmosphere each day.
Have you wondered where the sewage from one house, many houses, a big city goes? It pollutes rivers and lakes and may even make them die. Fish can't live in them, and you can't swim in them.
Have you wondered where the wood for houses comes from? And the paper for books and newspapers? From our forests. And what does the land look like when the trees are gone?
Have you thought where the poison goes that we spray on gardens and grass to kill insects and weeds? Onto the things the birds eat, making it hard for them to live and share with us their beautiful colours and songs.
Have you seen piles of old cars and old refrigerators? Not very nice to look at, are they? Have you seen piles of old boxes, glass jars, and cans? Not very beautiful, are they?
If we don't do anything about this spoiling of the world around us — its air, its water, its land, and its life — our lives are not going to be so nice. But there is much that we can do.
Factories can clean their smoke. Cars and planes can be made so that their fumes do not add to the pollution.
The dirty water from factories can be made clean. Sewage, too, can be changed so that water is clean enough to use again. Fish can live again, and you can swim again in oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes.
The mountains can still be covered with forests if the cutting of trees is done with care. We must plant again where we have cut. And we can have enough wood for houses and paper for books.
There is no need to throw away things we do not want or cannot use any more. We can change many things back into what they were made of, and use them again. Old newspapers can become new paper. Old glass jars can be turned into new glass. Old iron can help to make new cars and refrigerators.
We can also learn not to litter. We all know the sign: DO NOT LITTER. But not everyone does what the sign says.
For a long time, people have used their Earth home without thinking of what was happening to it. Now we see that we must treat it better if it is to be a nice home. It can be.
Charities and Conflict
What is a charity? A charity is a voluntary organization which is set up in order to do good. Charities aim not only to help and support people but also animals, the environment, etc. In size they range from small, local organizations (which provide support on a local basis and are usually staffed by unpaid volunteers drawn from the immediate area) to large, international organizations who have salaried professionals working for them as well as a global network of volunteers. Such organizations provide support on an international basis and deal with global problems.
Charities have a variety of roles in the world today covering almost every aspect of human life. They provide food, medicine, bandages, prosthetic limbs, vaccination programmes, neo-natal care, water, irrigation systems, school-teachers, shelters, blankets, shoes, clothing and much, much more. They work hard to raise public awareness of the problems faced by many people in the world today and to raise money to meet the basic requirements of those in need. Many charities also respond promptly in disaster situations, sending emergency supplies to the worst-hit areas with impressive speed.
Other charities work in less dramatic surroundings, quietly looking after the elderly and infirm, supporting the terminally ill and caring for the depressed, suicidal and the mentally ill.
Charities concerned with animals and the environment are actively involved in rescuing and caring for abandoned, abused or over-worked animals, protecting wild animals and their habitats and lobbying the relevant authorities in order to get governmental policies (and national and international laws) changed for the good of the planet and its flora and fauna.
In the past, charities, voluntary organizations and religious organizations were the main (if not the only) providers of social services in the local, national and global community. However, things began to change with the dawning of the 20th century. Many governments in developed countries began to take on more responsibility for society’s problems: the ‘Welfare State’ had arrived. Governments instigated welfare programmes in which healthcare, education and housing became more and more available to the poorest elements of society. People needed to rely less and less on charitable foundations. Nowadays, countries with highly developed and efficiently-run welfare states have fewer home-grown
Traditions and Language
Customs and Traditions There are many customs and traditions in England. And I would like to tell you about some of them. First tradition is called "Wrong side of the bed". When people are bad tempered we say that they must have got out of bed on the wrong side. Originally, it was meant quite literally. People believe that the way they rose in the morning affected their behaivor throughout the day. The wrong side of the bed was the left side. The left always was linked with evil. The second custom is called "Blowing out the candles". The custom of having candles on birthday cakes goes back to the ancient Greeks. Worshippers of Artemis, goddess of the moon and hunting, used to place honey cakes on the altars of her temples on her birthday. The cakes were round like the full moon. This custom was next recorded in the middle ages when German peasants lit tapers on birthday cakes, the number lit indicating the person's age, plus an extra one to represent the light of life. From earliest days burning tapers had been endued with mystical significance and it was believed that when blown out they had the power to grant a secret wish and ensure a happy year ahead. And the last tradition I would like to tell you is called "The 5th of November". On the 5th of November in almost every town and village in England you will see fireburning, fireworks, cracking and lighting up the sky. You will see too small groups of children pulling round in a homemade cart, a figure that looks something like a man but consists of an old suit of clothes, stuffed with straw. The children will sing: "Remember, remember the 5th of November, Gun powder, treason and plot". And they will ask passers-by for "a penny for the Guy. But the children with "the Guy" are not likely to know who or what day they are celebrating. They have done this more or less every 5th of November since 1605. At that time James the First was on the throne. He was hated with many people especialy the Roman catholics against whom many sever laws had been passed. A number of catholics chief of whom was Robert Catesby determined to kill the King and his ministers by blowing up the house of Parliament with gunpowder. To help them in this they got Guy Fawkes, a soldier of fortune, who would do the actual work. The day fixed for attempt was the 5th of November, the day on which the Parliament was to open. But one of the consperators had several friends in the parliament and he didn't want them to die. So he wrote a letter to Lord Monteagle begging him to make some excuse to be absent from parliament if he valued his life. Lord Monteagle took the letter hurriedly to the King. Guards were sent at once to examine the cellars of the house of Parliament. And there they found Guy Fawkes about to fire a trail of gunpowder.He was tortured and hanged, Catesby was killed, resisting arrest in his own house. In memory of that day bonfires are still lighted, fireworks shoot across the November sky and figures of Guy Fawkes are burnt in the streets.
English is the Language of Communication «Do you speak English?» — with this phrase begins the conversation between two people, that speak different languages and want to find a common language.
It's very good when you hear: «Yes, I do», and start talking. People of different countries and nations have to get along well with the progress in world trade and technology as well as with each other.
So it is very useful to learn foreign languages. Knowledge of foreign languages helps us to develop friendship and understanding among people.
English is very popular now. It's the language of computers, science, business, sport and politics. It's spoken all over the world. It is the official language of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States of America, Canada, Australia. There are more than 750 million speakers of English in the world.
Speaking a foreign language you can read papers, magazines and original books by great writers, watch satellite TV programs.
If you like travelling you can go anywhere without being afraid that other people will not understand you. English is very important to find a good job.
conversation — разговор
common — общий
world trade — мировая торговля
to get along with — ладить, уживаться
foreign — иностранный
to develop — развивать(ся)
science — наука
satellite — спутник
to be afraid — бояться
The English Language English is spoken practically all over the world. It is spoken as the mother tongue in Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A lot of people speak English in China, Japan, India, Africa and other countries- It is one of 6 official languages of the United Nations. It is studied as a foreign language in many schools.
England's history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons» Hundreds of French words came into English. These French words didn't crowd out corresponding Anglo-Saxon words. There exist «act» and «deed», «beautiful» and «pretty», «form» and «shape».
Many new words were brought by traders and travellers. These words came from all parts of the worlds «umbrella» — from Italian, «skates» —from Dutch» «tea» —from Chinese» «cigar» — from Spanish.
Some words came into English directly from Latin, which was the language of the church and the universities in the Middle Ages.
Some of the English words of today are derivatives. One way of creating new words is to put together two or more older English words. For example» the words «railway», «football», «newspaper» are made in this way.
Many of the new English words — especially new scientific ones — have been made from Latin and Greek words instead of English ones. «Telephone» for instance, was made from Greek words «far» and «talk».
mother tongue — родной язык
United Nations — Организация Объединенных Наций
to borrow — заимствовать
Angles and Saxons — англы и саксы
to crowd out — вытеснять
to exist — существовать
trader — купец
directly — непосредственно
derivative — производное слово
Music and Film
Visit to the Cinema Once I read an article about various kinds of entertainment. According to it TV, radio and cinema have made great changes in the entertainments with which people fill their free time.
There was a time when people knew what to do to enjoy themselves: they played games, sang, played musical instruments, went out shooting.
Nowadays we can get entertained by the TV, the radio, the theatre or the cinema. Cinema is available no matter where you live. You can always find the film you like among horror films, thrillers, westerns, detective, love, musical films or comedies.
Not so long ago most people used to visit cinema every week. Often cinema houses were overcrowded. But at present video production has flooded the market and cinema became less popular.
I don’t go often to the cinema and my friends are not regular cinema-goers either. But if there is a film, which is a hit with the public, I do my best to watch it. The last film I saw was Hollywood remake of Shakespeare’s «Romeo and Juliet». The action takes place in the modern world but all the rest is just tike great Shakespeare had described: people, action, feelings. The original text was used in the film. And I have to mention that the music was great. I think the actors and the actresses did their best and looked great. I’ll remember the film for a long time.
Music in Our Life I love music, I think people can not live without it. The first thing I do in the morning I switch on my tape — recorder.
We can hear music everywhere: in the streets, in the shops, on TV, over the radio, in the cars, in the parks, everywhere. I think it's really doesn't matter what kind of music you prefer: rock, pop, classical, jazz. A lot of people are fond of music. They buy tapes, go to the concerts, visit Concert Halls and Opera Theatres.
I enjoy listening music because it reflects my moods and emotions. Very often when I'm blue, I play my favourite merry songs and feel much better.
Sometimes I attend music halls and the concerts, when popular groups and singers are there. I like watching music programs on TV. I like to know more and more about popular talented groups and singers I like.
One wall of my room is covered with posters of "Bon Jovi", "Scorpions", "Roxette", Russian singers Agutin, Sjutkin, Linda and others. Some people go to musics schools, they play different musical instruments, sing in the chorus, try to compose music.
Unfortunately there are so many ungifted singers on the stages, that it makes me sad. To have a good producer doesn't mean to have good ears and voice. I think that only talented people can claim to be singers.
to switch on — включать
tape-recorder — магнитофон
to reflect — отражать
mood — настроение
to attend — посещать
to cover — покрывать
poster — плакат
to compose — сочинять
ungifted — бездарный
stage — сцена
Travel and Tourism
Travelling Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It's always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and laze in the sun.
Most travellers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them — the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests; different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds.
Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy time they have had.
People travel by train, by plane, by boat and by car.
All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.
If we are fond of travelling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.
Science and Technology
Great Inventions Television (1920s). The invention that swept the world and changed leisure habits for countless millions was pioneered by Scottish-born electrical engineer John Logie Baird. It had been realized for some time that light could be converted into electrical impulses, making it possible to transmit such impulses over a distance and then reconvert them into light.
Motor Car (Late 19th Century). With television, the car is probably the most widely used and most useful of all leisure-inspired inventions. German engineer Karl Benz produced the first petroldriven car in 1885 and the British motor industry started in 1896. Henry Ford was the first to use assembly line production for his Model Т car in 1908. Like them or hate them, cars have given people great freedom of travel.
Electricity. The name came from the Greek word for amber and was coined by Elizabeth I's physician William Gilbert who was among those who noticed that amber had the power to attract light objects after being rubbed. In the 19th century such great names as Michael Faraday, Humphry Davy, Alessandro Volta and Andre Marie Ampere all did vital work on electricity.
Photography (Early 19th Century). Leonardo da Vinci had described the camera obscura photographic principle as early as 1515. But it was not until 1835 that Frenchman Louis Daguerre produced camera photography. The system was gradually refined over the years, to the joy of happy snappers and the despair of those who had to wade through friends' endless holiday pictures.
Telephone (1876). Edinburgh-born scientist Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention of the telephone in 1876. The following year, the great American inventor Thomas Edison produced the first working telephone. With telephones soon becoming rapidly available, the days of letter-writing became numbered.
Computer (20th Century). The computer has been another life-transforming invention. British mathematician Charles Babbage designed a form of computer in the mid-1830s, but it was not until more than a century later that theory was put into practice. Now, a whole generation has grown up with calculators, windows, icons, computer games and word processors, and the Internet and e-mail have transformed communication and information.
Aeroplane. The plane was the invention that helped shrink the world and brought distant lands within easy reach of ordinary people. The invention of the petrol engine made flight feasible and the American Wright brothers made the first flight in 1903.
3. Texts in english on computer science for high school Networking Troubleshooting People often call IT professionals about network connection problems. But many problems are easy to fix without help. First, reconnect any loose CAT-5 cable connections. Next, investigate IP address issues. This group of numbers allows communication on the Internet. Renewing your DHCP fixes most IP problems. Next, check the router. The router links LANs to the Internet. Make sure the router’s configuration is correct. WLANs have other problems. Interference often blocks their wireless signals. But there is a simple solution. Just move the router away from walls and metals. Finally, cycle the network. Turn all equipment off for a full minute and then restart.
IT Professional: Hi. Can I help you find something?
Customer: Oh, please. I need a router.
IT Professional: Well, there are two types. What kind of network do you have?
Customer: I don’t have one yet, but it’s for the computers in my home.
IT Professional: Do you want a LAN or a WLAN? Some routers don’t support both types.
Customer: What’s the difference?
IT Professional: A WLAN connects computers wirelessly. A LAN connects computers with CAT-5 cables.
Customer: My computers are far apart I’d need a WLAN.
The Digital Divide A recent survey has shown that the number of people in the United Kingdom who do not intend to get internet access has risen. These people, who are known as 'net refuseniks', make up 44% of UK households, or 11.2 million people in total.
The research also showed that more than 70 percent of these people said that they were not interested in getting connected to the internet. This number has risen from just over 50% in 2005, with most giving lack of computer skills as a reason for not getting internet access, though some also said it was because of the cost.
More and more people are getting broadband and high speed net is available almost everywhere in the UK, but there are still a significant number of people who refuse to take the first step.
The cost of getting online is going down and internet speeds are increasing, so many see the main challenge to be explaining the relevance of the internet to this group. This would encourage them to get connected before they are left too far behind. The gap between those who have access to and use the internet is the digital divide, and if the gap continues to widen, those without access will get left behind and miss out on many opportunities, especially in their careers.
First Computer Programmer Ada Lovelace was the daughter of the poet Lord Byron. She was taught by Mary Somerville, a well-known researcher and scientific author, who introduced her to Charles Babbage in June 1833. Babbage was an English mathematician, who first had the idea for a programmable computer.
In 1842 and 1843, Ada translated the work of an Italian mathematician, Luigi Menabrea, on Babbage's Analytical Engine. Though mechanical, this machine was an important step in the history of computers; it was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer. Babbage worked on it for many years until his death in 1871. However, because of financial, political, and legal issues, the engine was never built. The design of the machine was very modern; it anticipated the first completed general-purpose computers by about 100 years.
When Ada translated the article, she added a set of notes which specified in complete detail a method for calculating certain numbers with the Analytical Engine, which have since been recognized by historians as the world's first computer program. She also saw possibilities in it that Babbage hadn't: she realized that the machine could compose pieces of music. The computer programming language 'Ada', used in some aviation and military programs, is named after her.