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3.2 Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It states that the behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistrychemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars.[1] Scottish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854:[2]

Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency.

The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was extended early on to the study of chemical systems. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role ofentropy in the process of chemical reactions and provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged in the following decades. Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerned itself withstatistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach to the field in his axiomatic formulation of thermodynamics, a description often referred to as geometrical thermodynamics.


4. Electromagnetic oscillations

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum. It is a three-dimensional form of the wave equation.

In his 1865 paper titled A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Maxwell utilized the correction to Ampère's circuital law that he had made in part III of his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force. In Part VI of his 1864 paper titled Electromagnetic Theory of Light,[2] Maxwell combined displacement current with some of the other equations of electromagnetism and he obtained a wave equation with a speed equal to the speed of light. He commented:

The agreement of the results seems to show that light and magnetism are affections of the same substance, and that light is an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through the field according to electromagnetic laws.[3]

Maxwell's derivation of the electromagnetic wave equation has been replaced in modern physics education by a much less cumbersome method involving combining the corrected version of Ampère's circuital law with Faraday's law of induction.


4.2. Alternating current
Alternating current (AC), is an electric current in which the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction, whereas in direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simplyalternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.[1][2]

AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves.



Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. These types of alternating current carry information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal, such as sound (audio) or images (video). These currents typically alternate at higher frequencies than those used in power transmission.

Electric power is distributed as alternating current because AC voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer. This allows the power to be transmitted through power lines efficiently at high voltage, which reduces the power lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, and transformed to a lower, safer, voltage for use. Use of a higher voltageleads to significantly more efficient transmission of power. The power losses ({\displaystyle P_{\rm {L}}}) in a conductor are a product of the square of the current (I) and the resistance (R) of the conductor, described by the formula

{\displaystyle P_{\rm {L}}=I^{2}R\,.}

This means that when transmitting a fixed power on a given wire, if the current is halved (i.e. the voltage is doubled), the power loss will be four times less.

The power transmitted is equal to the product of the current and the voltage (assuming no phase difference); that is,

{\displaystyle P_{\rm {T}}=IV\,.}

Consequently, power transmitted at a higher voltage requires less loss-producing current than for the same power at a lower voltage. Power is often transmitted at hundreds of kilovolts, and transformed to 100–240 volts for domestic use.

High voltage transmission lines deliver power from electric generationplants over long distances using alternating current. These particular lines are located in eastern Utah.

High voltages have disadvantages, the main one being the increased insulation required, and generally increased difficulty in their safe handling. In a power plant, power is generated at a convenient voltage for the design of a generator, and then stepped up to a high voltage for transmission. Near the loads, the transmission voltage is stepped down to the voltages used by equipment. Consumer voltages vary depending on the country and size of load, but generally motors and lighting are built to use up to a few hundred volts between phases.
4.3 Electromagnetic waves

Communications, antenna, radar, and microwave engineers must deal with the generation, transmission, and reception of electromagnetic waves. Device engineers working on ever-smaller integrated circuits and at ever higher frequencies must take into account wave propagation effects at the chip and circuit-board levels. Communication and computer network engineers routinely use waveguiding systems, such as transmission lines and optical fibers. Novel recent developments in materials, such as photonic bandgap structures, omnidirectional dielectric mirrors, birefringent multilayer films, surface plasmons, negative-index metamaterials, slow and fast light, promise a revolution in the control and manipulation of light and other applications. These are just some examples of topics discussed in this book.

The book is organized around three main topic areas:


  • The propagation, reflection, and transmission of plane waves, and the analysis and design of multilayer films.

  • Waveguiding systems, including metallic, dielectric, and surface waveguides, transmission lines, impedance matching, and S-parameters.

  • Linear and aperture antennas, scalar and vector diffraction theory, plane-wave spectrum, Fourier optics, superdirectivity and superresolution concepts, antenna array design, numerical methods in antennas, and coupled antennas.

The text emphasizes connections to other subjects. For example, the mathematical techniques for analyzing wave propagation in multilayer structures, multisegment transmission lines, and the design of multilayer optical filters are the same as those used in DSP, such as the lattice structures of linear prediction, the analysis and synthesis of speech, and geophysical signal processing. Similarly, antenna array design is related to the problem of spectral analysis of sinusoids and to digital filter design, and Butler beams are equivalent to the FFT.

Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagneticprocesses. Visible light is an electromagnetic radiation. Other familiar electromagnetic radiations are invisible to the human eye, such as radio wavesinfrared light and X-rays.



Classically, electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves, which are synchronizedoscillations of electric and magnetic fields that propagate at the speed of light through a vacuum. The oscillations of the two fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy andwave propagation, forming a transverse wave. Electromagnetic waves can be characterized by either thefrequency or wavelength of their oscillations to form the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes, in order of increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength: radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light,ultraviolet radiationX-rays and gamma rays.

Electromagnetic waves are produced whenever charged particles are accelerated, and these waves can subsequently interact with any charged particles. EM waves carry energymomentum and angular momentum away from their source particle and can impart those quantities to matter with which they interact. Quanta of EM waves are called photons, which aremassless, but they are still affected by gravity. Electromagnetic radiation is associated with those EM waves that are free to propagate themselves ("radiate") without the continuing influence of the moving charges that produced them, because they have achieved sufficient distance from those charges. Thus, EMR is sometimes referred to as the far field. In this language, the near fieldrefers to EM fields near the charges and current that directly produced them, specifically, electromagnetic induction and electrostatic induction phenomena.

In the quantum theory of electromagnetism, EMR consists of photons, the elementary particles responsible for all electromagnetic interactions. Quantum effects provide additional sources of EMR, such as the transition of electrons to lower energy levels in an atom and black-body radiation. The energy of an individual photon is quantized and is greater for photons of higher frequency. This relationship is given by Planck's equation E = hν, where E is the energy per photon, ν is the frequency of the photon, and h isPlanck's constant. A single gamma ray photon, for example, might carry ~100,000 times the energy of a single photon of visible light.

The effects of EMR upon biological systems (and also to many other chemical systems, under standard conditions) depend both upon the radiation's power and its frequency. For EMR of visible frequencies or lower (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared), the damage done to cells and other materials is determined mainly by power and caused primarily by heating effects from the combined energy transfer of many photons. By contrast, for ultraviolet and higher frequencies (i.e., X-rays and gamma rays), chemical materials and living cells can be further damaged beyond that done by simple heating, since individual photons of such high frequency have enough energy to cause direct molecular damage.


5.Optics

5.1 Geometrical optics
Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, or instrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances.

The simplifying assumptions of geometrical optics include that light rays:

- propagate in rectilinear paths as they travel in a homogeneous medium

- bend, and in particular circumstances may split in two, at the interface between two dissimilar media

- follow curved paths in a medium in which the refractive index changes

- may be absorbed or reflected.

Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical effects such as diffraction and interference. This simplification is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is small compared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful in describing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations.

A light ray is a line or curve that is perpendicular to the light's wavefronts (and is therefore collinear with the wave vector).

A slightly more rigorous definition of a light ray follows from Fermat's principle, which states that the path taken between two points by a ray of light is the path that can be traversed in the least time.[1]

Geometrical optics is often simplified by making the paraxial approximation, or "small angle approximation." The mathematical behavior then becomes linear, allowing optical components and systems to be described by simple matrices. This leads to the techniques ofGaussian optics and paraxial ray tracing, which are used to find basic properties of optical systems, such as approximate image and object positions and magnifications.


Wave optics

A slit that is wider than a single wave will produce interference-like effects downstream from the slit. It is easier to understand by thinking of the slit not as a long slit, but as a number of point sources spaced evenly across the width of the slit. This can be seen in Figure 2 .





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