Access to safe drinking water is indicated by safe water sources. These improved drinking water sources include household connection, public standpipe, borehole condition, protected dug well, protected spring, and rain water collection. Sources that do not encourage improved drinking water to the same extent as previously mentioned include: unprotected wells, unprotected springs, rivers or ponds, vender-provided water, bottled water (consequential of limitations in quantity, not quality of water), and tanker truck water. Access to sanitary water comes hand in hand with access to improved sanitation facilities for excreta, such as connection to public sewer, connection to septic system, or a pit latrine with a slab or water seal.
Main articles: Water purification and Water treatment
Most water requires some type of treatment before use, even water from deep wells or springs. The extent of treatment depends on the source of the water. Appropriate technology options in water treatment include both community-scale and household-scale point-of-use (POU) designs. Only few large urban areas such as Christchurch, New Zealand have access to sufficiently pure water of sufficient volume that no treatment of the raw water is required.
In emergency situations when conventional treatment systems have been compromised, waterborne pathogens may be killed or inactivated by boiling but this requires abundant sources of fuel, and can be very onerous on consumers, especially where it is difficult to store boiled water in sterile conditions. Other techniques, such as filtration, chemical disinfection, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (including solar UV) have been demonstrated in an array of randomized control trials to significantly reduce levels of water-borne disease among users in low-income countries, but these suffer from the same problems as boiling methods.
Another type of water treatment is called desalination and is used mainly in dry areas with access to large bodies of saltwater.
Ecological problems Global warming is the average warming of Earth's atmosphere and surface. Although global warming has occurred frequently in Earth's past, in the modern use of the term global warming describes increases in average temperatures outside of changes expected as a result of natural, cyclic variations. A related term, anthropogenic (human-caused) global warming (AGW), is used to indicate that global warming is the result of human activity, especially agricultural and industrial practices that emit greenhouse gases. Global warming does not mean that all places on Earth experience higher temperatures, nor does it demand that warming increase steadily each year, but rather that Earth's overall atmospheric, land, and sea temperatures increase over time.
Climate is defined as the average weather of a region over time. Temperature, rainfall, storms, and other weather-related or environmental conditions are short-term facets of longer-term climate conditions. There is an increasing consensus of data and expert opinion that climate change driven by global warming is observable, measurable, and--without prompt mitigation (efforts to reduce) is predicted to pose increasing perils to life on Earth. The 2007 Assessment Report of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that global warming was "unequivocal" and that it is more than 90 percent likely that most of the global warming observed since the mid-twentieth century is caused by anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases.
Global Warming Light from the Sun passes through the atmosphere and warms Earth's surface. The energy associated with heating is re-radiated as infrared light absorbed in the atmosphere by greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, methane (CH4), ozone, nitrous oxide (N2O), and the human-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). This atmospheric warming is called the greenhouse effect and is both natural and essential for life on Earth. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth's average global temperature would be too cold to support most forms of animal and plant life. However, an overabundance of greenhouse gases can increase the greenhouse effect and force abnormal global warming.
Carbon dioxide--a by-product of burning fossil fuels and modern forests--is the most abundant greenhouse gas. Depending on the specific measurements, in the early twenty-first century, there is at least 30 to 40 percent more CO2 in the atmosphere than in 1850. There have also been significant increases in methane, a more potent greenhouse gas.
In some ways, adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere is like throwing another blanket on Earth; the consequent rise in global temperature is known as global warming. Despite the fact that climate is a complex system and climate models are difficult to construct, scientists must use climate models to predict the impacts of various concentrations of greenhouse gases on global warming, and in turn, on global climate. Some models show average global temperature increasing as much as 9 degrees Fahrenheit (5 degrees Celsius) by 2100. Because ocean water absorbs more heat than land, the Southern Hemisphere (which has more water) will warm less than the Northern Hemisphere; hence, any temperature increase will not be uniform. Atmospheric circulation patterns will bring the greatest warming, as much as 14 to 18 degrees Fahrenheit (8 to 10 degrees Celsius), to Earth's poles.
Since the IPCC's 2007 report, new scientific findings have tended to worsen the climate change picture. In early 2009, scientists at two major gatherings--one at the University of Copenhagen, the other at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science--presented evidence that climate change was occurring more quickly than the IPCC had conservatively forecasted in 2007. In addition, carbon dioxide increased faster than the IPCC's most pessimistic forecasts.
Climate change skeptics often cite Berkley professor of physics Richard A. Muller's (1944-) past criticisms of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change. In 2010, Muller founded the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Study to analyze climate data. In 2012, Muller recanted his skepticism over anthropogenic climate change, titling his op-ed in the New York Times "The Conversion of a Climate-Change Skeptic." Muller states that his work at Berkeley Earth provides the most convincing evidence to date that human activity over the last 250 years has altered Earth's climate. Muller notes that his findings go even further than the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report, which only attributed temperature rises since the mid-twentieth century as "very likely" due to human activity.
Climate Change According to the IPPC and the vast majority of global leaders and climate experts, climate change driven by AGW will fundamentally impact the security, health, and global economy of nations for generations. Hundreds of millions of people and scores of societies, economies, and cultures are already threatened by rising sea levels, disrupted food production, extreme weather, and emergent diseases. While such irreversible losses as species extinctions and lost lives cannot be calculated in monetary terms, the most conservative estimates of the costs of climate change over the next century range in the trillions of dollars. Moreover, the most severe effects of climate change are predicted to most strongly impact the world's poorest and most vulnerable human populations.
What is Green Chemistry?
The concept of greening chemistry is a relatively new idea which developed in the business and regulatory communities as a natural evolution of pollution prevention initiatives. In our efforts to improve crop protection, commercial products, and medicines, we also caused unintended harm to our planet and humans. By the mid-20th century, some of the long-term negative effects of these advancements could not be ignored. Pollution choked many of the world's waterways and acid rain deteriorated forest health. There were measurable holes in the earth's ozone. Some chemicals in common use were suspected of causing or directly linked to human cancer and other adverse human and environmental health outcomes. Many governments began to regulate the generation and disposal of industrial wastes and emissions. The United States formed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970, which was charged with protecting human and environmental health through setting and enforcing environmental regulations. Green chemistry takes the EPA's mandate a step further and creates a new reality for chemistry and engineering by asking chemists and engineers to design chemicals, chemical processes and commercial products in a way that, at the very least, avoids the creation of toxics and waste. Green Chemistry is not politics. Green Chemistry is not a public relations ploy. Green chemistry is not a pipe dream. We are able to develop chemical processes and earth-friendly products that will prevent pollution in the first place. Through the practice of green chemistry, we can create alternatives to hazardous substances we use as our source materials. We can design chemical processes that reduce waste and reduce demand on diminishing resources. We can employ processes that use smaller amounts of energy. We can do all of this and still maintain economic growth and opportunities while providing affordable products and services to a growing world population. This is a field open for innovation, new ideas, and revolutionary progress. This is the future of chemistry. This is green chemistry. To learn more, read the definition of green chemistry. Green Chemistry Definition Sustainable and green chemistry in very simple terms is just a different way of thinking about how chemistry and chemical engineering can be done. Over the years different principles have been proposed that can be used when thinking about the design, development and implementation of chemical products and processes. These principles enable scientists and engineers to protect and benefit the economy, people and the planet by finding creative and innovative ways to reduce waste, conserve energy, and discover replacements for hazardous substances. It’s important to note that the scope of these of green chemistry and engineering principles go beyond concerns over hazards from chemical toxicity and include energy conservation, waste reduction, and life cycle considerations such as the use of more sustainable or renewable feed stocks and designing for end of life or the final disposition of the product. Green chemistry can also be defined through the use of metrics. While a unified set of metrics has not been established, many ways to quantify greener processes and products have been proposed. These metrics include ones for mass, energy, hazardous substance reduction or elimination, and life cycle environmental impacts. Learn more about the principles of green chemistry and engineering. Green chemistry. What is Green Chemistry?
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. Whereas environmental chemistry focuses on the effects of polluting chemicals on nature, green chemistry focuses on technological approaches to preventing pollution and reducing consumption of nonrenewable resources.
Green chemistry overlaps with all subdisciplines of chemistry but with a particular focus on chemical synthesis, process chemistry, and chemical engineering, in industrial applications. To a lesser extent, the principles of green chemistry also affect laboratory practices. The overarching goals of green chemistry—namely, more resource-efficient and inherently safer design of molecules, materials, products, and processes—can be pursued in a wide range of contexts.
Sustainable development Sustainable development is a process for meeting human development goals while sustaining the ability of natural systems to continue to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived most strongly from the 1987 Brund land Report, it is rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection. Sustainable development is the organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs of future generations of life on the planet. It is a process that envisions a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use continue to meet human needs without undermining the "integrity, stability and beauty" of natural biotic systems. What is Sustainable Development There are many definitions of sustainable development, including this landmark one which first appeared in 1987:"Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
What Is Sustainable Development
There are many different origins and definitions of the term sustainable development but in 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development’s report called the Brund land Report is by far the best and is now one of the most widely recognized definitions:
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of ‘needs’, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.”
To Sum Up What Is Sustainable Development
In other words, when people make decisions about how to use the Earth’s resources such as forests , water, minerals, gems, wildlife, etc., they must take into account not only how much of these resources they are using, what processes they used to get these resources., and who has access to these resources. Are enough resources going to be left for your grandchildren to use and will the environment be left as you know it today?
CONCLUSION The occurred changes in Kazakhstan led the design and implementation of a new model of education based on modern information and educational technologies. Today the emphasis is on the creation of favorable conditions for the formation of a highly competitive person with an ethical attitude to the world, a creative mindset, developed ideological culture, while preserving its uniqueness, originality, talent in various fields of science and art.
The collection of texts in the Kazakh, Russian and English languages for the formation of skills in types of speech activity of students of secondary education level prepares students to learn subjects in three languages on the basis of the system of students' language and speech competence in writing, reading, listening and speaking on topics that are closest to real-life situations and are presented in the curricula of primary, basic secondary and general secondary education. The most important characteristic of the communicative-oriented language training is to use the text as the main didactic units.
Working with text enables us to develop students' skills subject following: read and understand the text to extract from it the information necessary to analyze the text in terms of its content, structure, style accessories, retell and edit text, create your own based on the text of the speech utterance.
Collection of texts prepared in accordance with the level of language acquisition, according to the European system of language proficiency levels (CEFR). The texts correspond to the curriculum of primary, secondary and high schools, contribute to further successful study of science and math cycle in English.
The collection is intended for teachers of language subjects and aims to address a number of speech and communication skills:
- Development of students' skills and phonemic hearing foreign speech perception in real-life situations;
- Development of written communication skills in an international information space;
- Development of students' skills of logical exposition of thought;
- Actualization of intellectual and creative potential of the individual student, his educational activity;
- The development of skills in self-assessment of students work performed for the formation of a further stimulus to the study of languages;
- The development of critical thinking of students through a variety of job types. Work with the text is considered to be a necessary stage of a modern lesson. Of great importance are the following characteristics of texts: the content of texts, their emotional language, accordance of moral, ethic and aesthetic content to psychological peculiarities of schoolchildren.. The work with texts at the lessons is connected with the development of pupils’ emotional and aesthetic perception, love for their native language, nature, people and country.
So, the task of a teacher is to organize the process of teaching accentuating it not only on perception and memory of pupils but basically on thinking. A teacher, who can choose good methods of presentation of material for study, helps pupils to reach a maximal possible level of language mastery.
The used literatures
У. Голдинг .www.serann.ru/text/povelitel-mukh-9426
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